Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The History of Tessville (Lincolnwood), Illinois.

The Potawatomi Indian tribe originally settled in this wooded area but vacated the land after the Indian Boundary Treaty of 1816. Rural development proceeded slowly on treacherous plank roads along present-day Milwaukee and Lincoln Avenues. 

Johann Volrath Theodor Tess (1828-1915), for whom the village was originally named, and his family came from Belitz, Gustrow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany in 1856, purchasing 30 acres of barren land in the area. Johann Tess is buried at Saint Peters United Church of Christ Cemetery in Skokie, Illinois.
Grandmother Proesel. A Founder of Tessville.
The population slowly increased, and the first commercial establishment, the Halfway House Saloon, was established in 1873.

Prior to the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, the Indian trail was known as Little Fort Road and it led to the town of Little Fort, now known as Waukegan, Illinois. Little Fort Road became a plank road and was turned into a toll road. In 1926 then Lincoln Avenue became part of U.S. Route 41 which stretches 2,000 miles between the Upper Peninsula in Michigan to Miami, Florida.

The sparse farming population grew after the establishment of a Chicago & North Western Railway station in nearby Niles Centre in 1891 (Americanized to Niles Center in 1910, then renamed to Skokie in 1940)
A Tessville Truck Vehicle Tag.
The completion of the North Shore Channel in 1909 made the easily flooded prairie land manageable. More saloons and taverns soon appeared along Crawford and Lincoln Avenues. Because only incorporated municipalities could grant liquor licenses, 359 residents incorporated in 1911 and named the village Tessville. 

Tessville annexed land throughout the 1920s, finally stretching to Central Avenue on the west and Kedzie Avenue to the east (the land that Thillens Stadium (
renamed "The Stadium at Devon and Kedzie") sat on at the east side of Kedzie at Devon Avenues, now in Chicago was originally in Tessville[1]). During Prohibition, Tessville became a haven for speakeasies and gambling facilities.
NOTE: Historically, many so-called speakeasies turned out to be urban myths; i.e. Elliott's Pine Log Restaurant in Skokie and the famous Stratosphere Club in the Jewelers Building, downtown Chicago. Legal alcohol was available during the prohibition years.
During Prohibition, Tessville became a haven for speakeasies and gambling facilities and was long reputed for drinking and gambling. In 1931, Henry A. Proesel, a grandson of George Proesel, one of the original American settlers, was elected and served as the longest-serving mayor.
Henry Proesel, Mayor of Tessville.
Proesel worked with the federal government's Public Works Administration (PWA) originally called the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works and hired the entire unemployed workforce of Tessville to plant 10,000 elm trees on the village streets. 

Most importantly, the community passed a liquor license law in 1934 that limited the number of liquor licenses allowable within the city limits and became a model ordinance for other communities. Proesel finally changed Tessville's image when he renamed the village “Lincolnwood” in 1936. 

Henry A. Proesel served as Mayor of Tessville/Lincolnwood for 46 years from 1931 to 1977. Today, Lincolnwood is a two-and-a-half square mile suburb of Chicago.

Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D.

[1] McCormick Road was built in 1926 by the Chicago Sanitary District as an access road to its North Side Water Reclamation Plant at Howard and McCormick. 
The Lincolnwood Grill & Fountain Coffee Shop was on the northwest corner of Devon and Kedzie Avenues. It was built when the west side of Kedzie Avenue was in Lincolnwood.

The border of Lincolnwood was moved from the westside of Kedzie Avenue to the westside of McCormick Boulevard after 1940.

The Lincolnwood, Illinois Motor Speedway (1932-1936)

The Lincolnwood Motor Speedway was also known as Evanston Motor Speedway, Tessville Motor Speedway, and the Chicago Midget Speedway. Prior to 1936, Lincolnwood was known as Tessville.
The track was located in what is now Lincolnwood. The race track property was bordered by Touhy Avenue to the north, by Pratt Avenue to the south, by railroad tracks to the northwest, and by McCormick Boulevard / North Shore Channel to the east.
Tet Tetterton driving car #3.
Various computer aerial images show the track located north of Pratt Ave. with the entrance to the speedway roughly at Pratt and St. Louis Avenues. The actual track ran east and west and was bordered by today's Central Park Avenue on the west and Christiana Avenue on the east with the main straightway north of the current street, Northeast Parkway.
Some early newspaper stories, ads, and race programs said the location was at Lincoln and Devon Avenues and McCormick Boulevard.
Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Novelty Golf and Games in Lincolnwood, Illinois.

Founded in 1949, Novelty Golf at 3650 West Devon Avenue in Lincolnwood, is still operating, hosting two-18 hole miniature golf courses. 
1980s Novelty Golf TV Commercial
I lived about 2 miles from Novelty Golf and my friends and I would play either one of the courses often. The 19th hole was actually a golf ball return, in a one-hole pinball style game. From the hundreds of golf games I played, I won a free game only one time. 
The ball return game is partially seen in the bottom left of this picture.
We'd spend almost all of our money in the game room. It was lit perfectly for a game room, with dim, indirect lighting. The "L" shaped room helped to keep the game noise down.
They had all the newest games, Asteroids, Space Invaders, Pac Man, Missile Command, Centipede, and a few Pinball machines. Later came more great games like Pole Position, Zaxxon, and Dragon's Lair which was the first arcade game to use cartoon footage.
Dragon's Lair Arcade Game - Full Play
Want to try Dragon's Lair? Click to download the Android game from Google Play. It is the original. What was your favorite arcade game? 
After we were done, it was off to the Bunny Hutch, which is next door and shares a parking lot, for a Hot Dog and fries.
By Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Remembering Lum's Restaurants in Illinois

Lum’s was a casual-restaurant chain known for its hot dogs steamed in beer and its tantalizing Ollieburgers. Stuart and Clifford Perlman started Lum’s in 1956 in Miami Beach. The brothers had four restaurants by 1961 and began aggressively expanding and franchising the company.  The Florida-based chain peaked at about 400 restaurants nationwide. The last one closed in 2017 in Bellevue, Nebraska.

Lum's Restaurant's busiest Chicago location was in the Old Town neighborhood on the southwest corner of North Avenue and Wells Street.
Standard Lum's Stand-A-Lone Building
There were Lum's restaurants in Bloomington, Chicago on Touhy Avenue west of Caldwell Avenue, Chicago Heights, Des Plaines at Rt. 83 and Elmhurst Road, Glenwood on Halsted, Hill Crest, Kankakee, Niles, Oak Lawn at 87th & Cicero, Ottawa, Peoria, Rockford, Rolling Meadows on Algonquin Road west of Wilkie Road, Schaumburg outside of Woodfield Mall, Tinley Park, Urbana, Villa Park at St. Charles and Euclid, and Wheeling.
Also a Standard Interior View
Lum's offered Hot Dogs steamed in beer with Sherry flavored sauerkraut and their famous chopped sirloin Lumburgers. Their huge Grilled Cheese sandwich was on a fluffy poppy-seed bun injected with American cheese and melty cheese slices between the bun for 45¢. Their $1.55 freshly breaded fried clam dinner was a best seller. Lum's offered over 20 brands of beer, some on tap and others in bottles, but all served in ice-cold frosted glasses.

It was a sad day when the Miami-based Lum’s filed for bankruptcy and close permanently in 1983.

Naugles 24-Hour Mexican Fast Food Restaurants of Illinois.

Naugles Sign - Location Unknown
The fresh-made food at Naugles set them apart from other fast-food Mexican restaurants in addition to the drive-thru being open 24 hours. 

The Southern California chain was founded in 1970, closed in 1995, and was rebooted in 2015 when the original trademark expired.

There was a Naugles on the southeast corner Western and Addison in Chicago across the street from Lane Tech High School along with other Chicago stores. There were other restaurants in Orland Park, Addison, Hoffman Estates, Palatine, Joliet, Bolingbrook, Glen Ellyn, Elmhurst, Aurora, and one in southern Illinois in Belleville.

My sister managed the Orland Park Naugles from 1982 to 1984. Although the brownies were packaged, they were the best and in my opinion, the best item Naugles sold.

It was bought out by Del Taco in 1988. After the buyout, all the Naugles restaurants were co-branded as Del Taco/Naugles restaurants for a few months before eventually becoming only Del Tacos.

There is one original "Naugles Tacos" still in business at; 18471 Mt. Langley Street, Fountain Valley, CA. 

If you have any info on other Illinois locations or just a story about Naugles, please comment below.


Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Friday, April 24, 2020

Why the North-South Chicago Streets Don't Align at North Avenue.

Chicagoans know that the north-south streets swerve abruptly on crossing North Avenue (1600N) from Kedzie Avenue (3200W) on the east to Oak Park Avenue (6800W) to the west, a distance of 4½ miles.
THE MYTH: Chicago’s streets are a grid pattern which is then overlaid on a spherical map of the Earth. All grids overlaid on spheres create an issue. As the meridian's lines (north/south) approach the poles, they converge.

A surveyor laying out a grid has two choices. Either let the streets get closer together as they head towards the North Pole, meaning the building lots get smaller and thus would be sold for less money, or readjust the grid at intervals so that the lots and the profits don't shrink.

Chicago opted for the second choice. The abrupt readjustment, or so the story has it, is manifested most conspicuously at North Boulevard, which was at one time the northern boundary for the City of Chicago.
Looking North on Pulaski Road (old Crawford Avenue) towards North Avenue, Chicago - 1947
MYTH DEBUNKED: The townships to the north and south of North Avenue were surveyed at different times by different people.

The surveyors who laid out the city south of North Avenue appeared to have been a bit inaccurate. Harlem Avenue, the city’s western border at that time, is 1/16 miles west of where it should be at Madison Street. That's 330 feet. Just guessing, but if one had to hide a 330-foot mistake, they may parcel it out in small increments along the 5-mile width.

It's not like this is the only surveyor's error in Chicago. The whole city is 1.3° off true north. As a result, it doesn't square with the survey grid between the Wisconsin border and Central Street in Evanston, which was laid out independently.

EVIDENCE: Central and Golf Road is supposed to be parallel. However, if you follow the lines in a Street atlas, you’ll find Central and Golf are 1
½ miles apart in Hoffman Estates, but only ½ mile apart in Evanston.

At the time of the survey, who cared about such a small difference? They thought they were surveying farm property lines. They couldn’t imagine what the future would bring.

ADDITIONAL READING: Chicago's Eastside Begins at North Boulevard (1600N)

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The History of Chicago's Irving Park Settlement.

Major Noble purchased a 160-acre tract of land from Christopher L. Ward and started farming in the 1840s. The boundaries of Noble's farm today would be Montrose to the north, Irving Park to the south, Pulaski to the east, and Kostner to the west.

Noble sold his land to a New York family (Charles T. Race and four other relatives that comprised the Irving Park Land and Building Company) and moved to McHenry County to farm in 1869. 

With the land so close to the Chicago & North Western (C&NW) railroad, Race realized there would be more profit in beginning a settlement instead of overusing the land for farming and began building houses. 

The original name chosen for the new suburb was "Irvington" after the author Washington Irving, but it was discovered that Irvington is a village in Washington County, Illinois had already used the name first, so the name of Irving Park was adopted. After Race paid for a depot, C&NW agreed to stop at the settlement, which was soon renamed, Irving Park.
An 1888 Rufus Blanchard map showing Irving Park before annexed to Chicago in 1889. The easternmost streets, cropped in this map, were Irving Avenue (Keeler), St. Charles Avenue (Kedvale), and Greenwood Avenue (Keystone). These original names were used until the City of Chicago renamed and renumbered the streets in 1909.
Race built himself a three-story brick house with a basement and “French roof.” Joined by associates, he organized the Irving Park Land Company, bought additional land, and subdivided it into lots. Advertisements promoted the area's easy access to downtown via hourly trains. Boasting an idyllic setting comparable to that of suburbs such as Evanston and Oak Park, the ad pointed to Irving Park’s “shady streets, fine schools, churches and stores,” and homes of varied designs. The Irving Park subdivision was followed by Grayland, Montrose, and Mayfair subdivisions.

Grayland, a suburb of Chicago, annexed in 1889, was created by subdividing John Gray's 80-acre farm. Gray deeded the land that he had already built a depot (the second one) on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad line. In return for the property, the R.R. promised to maintain and service the depot, thus ensuring that the inhabitants of Gray's subdivision would have easy transport to Chicago and back. The station was opened in 1873 to service Grayland.

The commuter suburb attracted many wealthy residents who sought larger homes of between seven and ten rooms and amenities that included closets and drinking water from artesian wells. Race and his associates garnered a 600% profit on the land. Other residents who were less affluent came to the area to remove their families from the dangers of the city. Rich or middle-class, the population of Irving Park was generally native-born, Protestant, and white-collar. They participated in community events and activities of a literary and musical nature. Both men and women were active in neighborhood organizations. The Irving Park Woman's Club formed in 1888 with an agenda of cultural and reform activities.

Suburban paradise was not without problems, however. In the 1880s heavy rains produced floods, and poor drainage turned unpaved streets to mud. In 1881 complaints were heard of raw sewage floating down Irving Park Road from the Cook County Poor House and Insane Asylum in Dunning.
The Irving Park Tea Store at 3613 Irving Park Road in Chicago. 1910
Although the annexation of Irving Park into the city of Chicago as part of Jefferson Township occurred in 1889, in the 1890s streets were still unpaved and unlighted. As improvements were added, the main thoroughfare became a construction zone; streets were updated and public transportation was created. A residential boom between 1895 and 1914 added more than 5,000 new buildings, of which 1,200 were multifamily residences. New structures changed the housing composition of the area, leading to concerns about community standards.

Irving Park was annexed to Chicago in 1889.
Germans and Swedes had begun arriving around the turn of the century but in the 1920s were largely replaced by Poles and Russians. The population peaked at 66,783 in 1930, and commercial interests sprang up along the major roads, but until 1940, construction was mainly residential. Most notable architecturally were the bungalows of the Villa District; Old Irving Park with Queen Anne, Victorian, and Italianate houses, farmhouses, and bungalows; and Independence Park with many homes of turn-of-the-century vintage.

Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

The Story of Chicago's "Walking Man."

Joseph "Joe" Kromelis is known in Chicago as "The Walking Man" or "The Walking Dude.

Kromelis moved to Chicago with his family from Lithuania or Germany as a kid and grew up above the bar his parents ran on Halsted. It was near a ballpark, which one, is still a mystery. His parents sold the tavern and moved to southwest Michigan when he was about 19. But Kromelis stuck around in Chicago. He tried a factory job but didn’t like it. He got a peddlers license and sold jewelry on the street. That’s when he began wandering the Loop. 
To most of his fellow downtown pedestrians, he was just "Walking Man," or "Walking Dude," a familiar, tall, mustachioed guy who wandered around town in a V-neck T-shirt and a kerchief tucked in the breast pocket of his suit jacket, going who knows where. Occasionally, he'd stop to comb his flamboyant hair. 

“There’s nothing wrong with him. He’s not mentally ill. He just likes walking. It’s that simple. My husband couldn’t figure it out, but he accepted it. That’s Joe. He loves the city,” his sister-in-law, Linda Kromelis said.
He lived in an efficiency apartment or an SRO (single room occupancy) building in Lincoln Park for about 30 years, until he had to leave because it was turned into condos in 2012. He never married and had no children.
Joseph Kromelis, second from left, stands with his now-deceased siblings in a family photo. From left are: John, Joe, Pete, Bruno, and Irene. (Photo provided by family)
Kromelis had been a fixture in downtown street life. Walking north near the Hancock Center, south near the Sears [Willis] Tower, on the Riverwalk, and across the bridges, occasionally in more far-flung areas. He was often seen patiently browsing inside stores on the Magnificent Mile and in Streeterville. He liked peddling jewelry on the streets and preferred to keep to himself and walk the city, every day and in every kind of weather.
Walking was what Joseph Kromelis was doing around 11 AM on Tuesday, May 24, 2016, when he was attacked. He told police he was on Lower Wacker and said hello to someone he passed. That man began punching and hitting him with a bat, Chicago police said. A police officer responding to a battery call saw the attacker straddled over Kromelis, struggling with the bat, according to a police report. A witness told the sergeant the suspect also tried to throw Kromelis over a railing to the pavement about 20 feet below. Kromelis was taken by ambulance to Northwestern Memorial Hospital to be treated for several injuries, including severe cuts to both eyes, according to the report. He also suffered leg injuries from being hit with the bat. He was listed in fair condition.
September 19, 2019
Rich Kolar writes: I ran into him today. Joe Kromelis is doing fine. We talked for a minute or so in front of the Cultural Center. A nice intelligent man who graciously let me take his photo.
Today, he'd be 75 or 76 years old. 

Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Friday, April 17, 2020

Riverview Park Built the Pike Walkway parallel to the Chicago River in 1904.

The Pike Walkway was Riverview's answer to the 1893 World's Fair Midway Plaisance. In 1907, Riverview began construction of the new Marine Causeway, also known as the River Walk, with new attractions.
Today it's the North Branch Riverwalk which is marked in red on the map. 
This postcard shows the early attractions at Riverview Sharpshooter Park (1904-1908) that would be renamed to Riverview Park. In this postcard, you can see the Katzenjammer Castle. Next to that is the Kansas Cyclone Show. Next to that is the Electric Theatre, and next to the Electric Theatre is the Serendipity Jubilee.
The Katzenjammer Castle. The tickets cost 10¢ each. Visitors would ascend via a moving stairway and be conveyed to the upper floor of the building, which was dark and narrow passages, moving, springing and suspended floors, dark rooms with images of goblins, heads of ferocious beasts with lighted eyes, many kinds of weird and fantastic figures, all so arranged in connections with the noises made, as to produce an effect upon the nerves of the visitors. Having passed through this section of the floor they came to the exit, claimed by the plaintiff to be the only exit from this part of the castle. This consisted of a chute or slide. The chute extended from the outside of the upper story of the building to from, eighteen inches to two and one-half feet from the ground, and was at an angle or pitch of thirty-five or forty degrees.

The Kansas Cyclone was located on the Pike walkway. It was built in 1904 and razed in 1907 to make way for new amusement park rides. The Kansas Cyclone gives visitors a very realistic and safe view of the damage done by a sudden tornado or 'twister.' It is a real storm produced by electricity. Heavy rainfall and a thunderstorm proceed with the windstorm.

The Electric Theatre showed moving pictures (silent films), and was the second most popular attraction at Riverview by box-office receipt at $16,000 ($461,000 today) in 1906.

The Serendipity Jubilee, as best as I could deduce, was a dance show.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.

The Real Story Behind the Igorrotes Village at Riverview Park in Chicago, 1906.

In historical writing and analysis, PRESENTISM is the introduction of present-day ideas and perspectives into depictions or interpretations of the past. I believe presentism is a form of cultural bias, and it creates a distorted understanding of the subject matter. Reading modern notions of morality into the past is committing the error of presentism. I'm well aware that historical accounts are written by people and can be slanted, so I try my hardest to present articles that are fact based and well researched, without interjecting any of my personal opinions.

A group of tribespeople danced with jerky movements as a man, barefoot and wearing only a g-string cloth, dragged a dog by a rope. The mutt snapped and snarled. Then with one deft stroke, the man slit the animal’s throat before chopping its lifeless body into pieces and throwing it into a communal pot. This was the Igorrote Village at Coney Island, and in 1905, it was the talk of America.
The Igorrotes on show at Coney Island, New York, in the summer of 1905.
The Igorrotes, or Bontoc Igorrotes to use their full tribal name, were from a remote region in the far north of the Philippines named Bontoc. 

Truman Hunt, an opportunistic former medical doctor turned showman, came up with the idea of transporting 50 Igorrotes to America and putting them on display in a mocked-up tribal village at Coney Island.

In early 1905, Truman Hunt traveled to Bontoc and made the Bontoc Igorrotes an audacious offer: if they agreed to leave their family and friends behind for a year and journey with him to the United States to put on a show of their native customs, he would pay them each $15 a month in wages.

Before long, the Igorrotes had made Hunt a fortune.

But he was spending money as quickly as the Igorrotes earned it. He had no desire to share his lucrative trade with anyone. But, hot on Hunt’s heels, another group of Igorrotes arrived in America. They were traveling with Richard Schneidewind, another Spanish-American war veteran and a former cigar salesman.

The two men could not have been more different. Hunt was a charming risk-taker and came to regard the tribespeople as a commodity. Schneidewind, who had been married to a Philippine woman who died giving birth to their first son, treated “his” tribespeople like family. He invited them to his home to meet his son and to eat dinner with them. 

Schneidewind took his Igorrote exhibition group to the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland, Oregon, then on to Chutes Park in Los Angeles, where they were a huge hit.

Hunt was furious. He split his tribespeople into several troupes to maximize his profits. Hunt’s groups toured the country, making dozens of stops, lasting anything from a few days to several weeks.

The rivalry between Hunt and Schneidewind was intense. In May of 1906, Hunt and Schneidewind ended up at a competing park, Riverview Park in Chicago. There the two showmen did everything they could to undermine each other’s exhibits.
Hunt rubbished Schneidewind’s reputation to his newspaper friends. Schneidewind and his business partner, Edmund Felder, wrote to the head of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, the U.S. government agency located within that War Department charged with administering the nation’s newly acquired territories. Their letter reported that the village operated by Hunt and his associates at Sans Souci Park in Chicago was in a terrible condition. The 18 men and women in Hunt’s group, they wrote, were crammed into three small A-frame tents in a muddy scrap of the land beneath the roller coaster. Their description, though arguably motivated more by business rivalry than concern for their fellow human beings, was accurate.

A member of the public -- possibly put up to it by Schneidewind and Felder -- wrote to the Bureau complaining that the Bontoc Igorrotes were living in squalor. There were further rumors that Hunt had stolen the tribe’s wages and that two men in the group had died on the road and that the showman had failed to have their bodies buried.

Both Hunt and Schneidewind had brought their Igorrote groups into America with permission from the U.S. government, an entity with a clear incentive to portray the people of the Philippines as primitive. How could such a society govern itself if it was filled with citizens as “backward” as the Igorrotes?  If it was true that Hunt was mistreating the Igorrotes, the government could hardly afford to be engulfed in a major scandal that could turn public opinion even further against a permanent presence in the Philippines.

Alarmed, the chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, Clarence Edwards, and his deputy, Frank McIntyre, called in one of their agents, Frederick Barker, and asked him to investigate the claims.

When Hunt received a tip-off that the Bureau was sending a man to examine his Igorrote enterprise, he fled town. He went on the run, taking some of the tribespeople with him.

A manhunt followed as Pinkerton detectives, the government agent, creditors and a woman who accused Hunt of bigamy pursued the showman across America and Canada. Hunt proved himself to be a slippery opponent. Finally, in October 1906, he was arrested on multiple charges of stealing from the Igorrotes and sentenced for 18 months in the state workhouse after a sensational trial in Memphis.

With his rival out of the way, Schneidewind emerged as the leading showman in the Igorrote exhibition trade. In the winter of 1906, Schneidewind returned to the Philippines to collect another Igorrote group and embarked on a second tour of America. A third U.S. tour followed in 1908.

In 1911, despite vociferous opposition from Bontoc tribal elders and officials of nearby towns, Schneidewind was permitted to take a group of 55 Igorrotes to Europe, where they exhibited in France, Scotland, England, the Netherlands, and Belgium.

Schneidewind and his associates were unfamiliar with the European entertainment business, and in 1913, after two years on the road, they ran into serious financial difficulties. What happened next was alarmingly reminiscent of Truman Hunt’s tour. According to American newspaper reports, in the winter of 1913, a group of starving Igorrotes was found wandering the streets of Ghent, Belgium. The group’s interpreters, Ellis Tongai and James Amok wrote to President Woodrow Wilson begging for his assistance. In their letter, they complained that they had not been paid for many months and reported the deaths of nine members of their group, including five children.

Schneidewind told the Igorrotes that if they stayed on and continued working for him until the 1915 San Francisco Exposition then they would earn a handsome wage, allowing them to return home rich. Despite the hardships they had endured, about half of the group wished to stay on in Europe, a sign perhaps that Schneidewind’s troubles owed more to incompetence than to cruelty or a lack of compassion for the Filipinos.

But, fearing another scandal, the U.S. government was unwilling to give Schneidewind another chance and decided they must intervene. In December 1913, the U.S. consul in Ghent escorted the tribespeople to Marseilles to catch a boat back to Manila.

This disastrous venture did little to help the image of the Igorrote show trade. The Philippine Assembly took action and, in 1914, passed legislation that banned the exhibition of groups of Filipino tribespeople abroad. As a measure of the seriousness with which the Philippine lawmakers regarded the subject, the ban was included as an amendment to a new Anti-Slavery Act.

Schneidewind, like Truman before him, exited the Igorrote show trade. For a full decade, starting in 1905, the Igorrotes had been the greatest show in town, thrilling and scandalizing the American public, and filling the nation’s newspapers. But in the intervening period, they disappeared from the public consciousness.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.