Friday, May 31, 2019

1839 Illustration of the Future site of Marshall Field & Company Store, Chicago.

Illustration: "Future site of Marshall Field & Company Store in 1839." Looking northeast from the future corner of State and Washington Streets in Chicago.
Potter Palmer, plagued by ailing health, was looking to dispose of his thriving business, so on January 4, 1865, Field and Leiter entered into a partnership with him and his brother Milton Palmer. So the firm of P. Palmer & Company became Field, Palmer, Leiter & Company, with Palmer financing much of their initial capital as well as his own contribution. After Field and Leiter's immediate success enabled them to pay him back, Palmer withdrew two years later from the partnership in 1867 to focus on his own growing real-estate interests on one of the burgeoning city's important thoroughfares, State Street. His brother, Milton Palmer, left at this time as well. The store was renamed Field, Leiter & Company, sometimes referred to as "Field & Leiter."

The buyout, however, did not bring an end to Potter Palmer's association with the firm. In 1868, Palmer convinced Field and Leiter to lease a new, six-story edifice he had just built at the northeast corner of State and Washington Streets. The store was soon referred to as the "Marble Palace" owing to its costly marble stone face.

Two years after the 1871 Great Chicago Fire, in October of 1873, Field and Leiter returned to State Street at Washington, opening in a new five-story store at the old location they now leased from the Singer Sewing Machine Company, Palmer having sold the land site to finance his own rebuilding activities. The Field, Leiter & Company Department Store was expanded in 1876, only to be destroyed by fire again on November 14, 1877.

Ever tenacious, Field and Leiter had a new temporary store opened by the end of the month at the Interstate Industrial Exposition Building on Michigan Avenue at Adams Street that they leased temporarily from the city. The Expo building was located where the Art Institute of Chicago is now.
Interstate Industrial Exposition Building on Michigan Avenue at Adams Street looking northeast.
Meanwhile, the Singer company had speculatively built a new, even larger, six-story building on the ruins of their old 1873 store, which, after some contention, was personally bought by Field and Leiter. Field, Leiter & Company now reclaimed their traditional location at the northeast corner of State and Washington for the last time in April of 1879.

In January 1881, Marshall Field, with the support of his junior partners, bought out Levi Z. Leiter, renaming the business "Marshall Field & Company."

Continue Reading: Field, Leiter & Company Department Store Fire of November 14, 1877.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

Field, Leiter & Company Department Store Fire of November 14, 1877.

Field, Leiter & Company (Marshall Field and Levi Leiter) moved their store from 112, 114 and 116 Lake Street to the just built "Palmer's Place," on State and Washington Streets holding the grand opening on Monday, October 12, 1868. The new store was leveled by the Great Chicago Fire on October 8, 1871.

For the second time in its history, the great department store of Field, Leiter & Company burns to the ground on November 14, 1877.
Field, Leiter & Company's new store opened on October 12, 1868 on State & Washington Streets. This store burned in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Note the "Vault Lights" in the sidewalks around the building.
Chicago Daily Tribune, November 15, 1877 - Morning Edition
In a pouring rain with every fire engine in the city at work, “It seemed as if the entire city had come downtown to witness the terrible scene.” The first alarm is turned in at 8:04 p.m. after someone sees a fire in the fifth story of the building at the corner of State and Washington Streets. Flames are found in a four-foot space at the top of the building that surrounds the central skylight between the north and south elevator shafts. It does not take long for the fire to spread to the grease on the elevator wheels and pulleys and from there into the elevator shafts themselves, moving downward, floor by floor. Sixteen minutes after the alarm is turned in, a 2-11 alarm is sounded, but the streams of water from the fire hoses cannot reach the top floor of the building.  Firefighters are forced to run hoses directly into the interior of the great store, which at its center has an atrium, 40 feet by 90 feet, that extends all the way to the roof.  Hoses are dragged up to the third and fourth floors and from those points of attack “the brave firemen played upon the heat and fury of the fire until either stricken down by falling plaster and rafters, suffocated by the smoke, or driven from their positions by the heat.”  It isn’t until 3:00 a.m. on the 15th that the fire is finally brought under control. Two firefighters die in the effort to extinguish the blaze.
Chicago Daily Tribune, November 15, 1877 - Evening Edition
“The destruction of such an amount of property could not but be regarded as a dire calamity at such a time as this, and so, as the news flew around, people left their firesides, their theatres, their billiard-tables, and everything, to get to the scene of action.”
Men are put to work by November 18th bracing the fourth floor which looked “as though it might come down at any time in a huge avalanche, and bury anybody who might be so unfortunate as to be within reach of even its shadow.” 
Field, Leiter & Company store that burned in 1877.
The insurance companies enlist over 200 men in salvage work, and on the sidewalks of State and Washington Streets there began a massive “fortification, made of cords upon cords of cotton, flannel, silk, white goods, mattresses, dress goods, parasols, kid gloves, and umbrellas.” In places, the pile reaches six feet high and over 15 feet wide. 
Interstate Industrial Exposition Building on Michigan Avenue at Adams Street looking east.
The huge mass of goods is carted two blocks to the northern part of the Interstate Industrial Exposition Building on Michigan Avenue at Adams Street, located at what is now the site of the present Art Institute of Chicago. The insurance adjusters estimate that from $175,000 to $200,000 ($4,765,000 today) worth of goods were saved.
Field, Leiter & Company store that opened in 1879.
In 1879 Field and Leiter open their fourth store in the same location, and in 1881 Marshall Field buys out Levi Leiter and renames the firm Marshall Field and Company.

Read the brief business background of Marshall Field with an 1839 Illustration of the future site of the Marshall Field & Company Store.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

Thursday, May 30, 2019

A Google Maps mystery. What does the location "1980 Stat Boundary" in Chicago and other larger U.S. cities mean?

While searching Chicago Google Maps, I found an L-shaped street labelled "1980 Stat Boundary" running north from the 2800 block of West Fulton Street and then turning west until it meets Francisco Avenue.
It turns out that "1980 Stat Boundary" is nothing more than an alley. The photo below shows the portion which goes north from the 2800 block of Fulton.
Please... use the link at the bottom of this article (yellow section) to comment if you know the meaning of "1980 Stat Boundary."

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

The new Gymnasium and Natatorium at Douglas Park, Chicago. (1896)

Along with bicycling, many other forms of “active recreation” were on the rise in late 19th century Chicago. Douglas Park was the smaller of the three great parks, Garfield Park, and Humboldt Park, of the West Park District and governed by West Park Commission.
“New Gymnasium and Natatorium at Douglas Park,” Chicago Daily Tribune, August 1896.
At the time, Germans accounted for the city’s largest ethnic population, and many were enthusiastic members of clubs that encouraged physical and moral fitness called Turnverein. In 1895, the Turnverein Vorwaerts, a Turners club located at West 12th Street (now Roosevelt Road) and South Western Avenue, petitioned the West Park Commissioners for an “outdoor gymnasium and public swimming bath” in Douglas Park.

Agreeing to the request, the commissioners soon hired Bohemian immigrant architect Frank Randak (1861-1926) to design the facility. He produced a brick natatorium with turrets, pitched roofs, and open courtyards that had separate outdoor pools for men and women. Randak’s complex included a quarter-mile-long running track with gymnastics apparatus—parallel and horizontal bars, trapezes, swings, vaulting horses, and ladders in the center of the oval.
With separate pools for men and women, the 1896 Douglas Park natatorium was the first swimming facility in a Chicago park. Douglas Park Men's pool. (1900)
This photo of the women’s pool dates from 1914.
In celebration of the natatorium’s opening, the West Park Commission held an extensive dedication ceremony. The event included a parade from Union Park to Douglas Park in which members of numerous Turners clubs marched alongside Polish and Bohemian athletic club members and representatives of trade unions. Towards the rear of the procession, members of the Chicago Bicycle Club rode past cheering crowds.

The impact of changing recreational trends accelerated over the course of the 20th century.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Sheridan Road (now Lake Shore Drive), north of Belmont Avenue, includes an early Chicago lakefront bicycle path.

This stretch of Sheridan Road (now Lake Shore Drive), north of Belmont Avenue, includes an early Chicago lakefront bicycle path. The path is the small roadway next to Lake Michigan, then to the west is a pedestrian path and further to the west, and the largest of the 3 roadways is for vehicles; horses, wagons, and motorcar traffic. (c.1900)

The Red Hot Ranch at 3118 West Devon Avenue, Chicago, Illinois.

In 1952, Isabel & Al Deutch opened the Red Hot Ranch (1952-1985) on Devon Avenue between Albany Avenue, and Troy Street, in Chicago’s West Rogers Park neighborhood of the West Ridge community. Little did they know they were creating a hot dog icon that would be remembered for well over a half-century.
Watercolor Painting by William Rubin. This one-of-a-kind watercolor was specifically painted for my sister, Michele, by Rubin, in the early 1970s.
Isabel hired many neighborhood kids was like a second mom to all. Mailmen started and ended their routes there, getting a cup of coffee in the morning and a hot dog in the afternoon.

Al was a chemical engineer who gladly worked the stand during the late shift often going past midnight wrapping those Vienna hot dogs and fries together. It was the hangout best remembered for its vitality as a happening little shack and the center of the neighborhood activity for many years.

The Ranch, as it was known, is gone now but will always be a part of the north side culture. Vienna Beef inducted the Red Hot Ranch on September 24, 2010.

High-Resolution prints are available in sizes up to 60" x 40" on your choice of quality papers or printed on Canvas. Also available on wrapped Canvas which needs no frame. See all choices.


Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

Lutz Café and Pastry Shop of Chicago, Illinois.

Lutz Café and Pastry Shop at 2458 West Montrose Avenue, Chicago, Illinois was established in 1948. The German bakery is a Chicago tradition. Just mentioning the name elicits stories and memories from childhoods passed. 
Walk in the door and you come face to face with a cornucopia of delicious, delectable and enticing treats. Lutz offers an amazing selection of cakes, tarts, tortes, cookies, and chocolates all created using traditional European recipes that have been in the Lutz family for centuries. Staying true to its Conditorei [1] distinction, Lutz pastries are made from the highest quality ingredients to create unique flavors that are light and delicate.
From stunning wedding cakes to seasonal specialties like Christ-Stollen and Baumkuchen to whimsical hand-made marzipan treats, the variety is endless. They truly are a German bakery extraordinaire.
The strawberry whipped cream cake that many grandparents bought for Sunday dinner, or the marzipan birthday plaque that was a special treat for one lucky kid, not to mention the delicious birthday cakes made to order. Walk in the door and you come face to face with a cornucopia of delicious, delectable and enticing treats.
Walk deeper into the store and find a quaint outdoor Café or Tea-Room, where you can relax with a pastry and Viennese style tea or a pot of their custom-blended coffee served Viennese style with a decorative dollop of real whipped cream“schlag” on the side. 
Come every May, you used to be able to visit the charming outdoor Tea Room garden overflowing with beautiful flowers. A perfect gathering place to meet friends or take a date. The outdoor Tea Room has been close for years.
Tour of Lutz Bakery.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

[1] Conditorei is the German word for a pâtisserie and confectionery shop. 

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The history of "Bozo the Clown," the Bozo Shows from other U.S. markets and Chicago's very own WGN TV Bozo shows.

Chicago's Bob Bell
The character "Bozo The Clown" was created by Alan W. Livingston and portrayed by Vance DeBar Colvig, professionally known as Pinto Colvig. 

His school friends nicknamed him "Pinto" after his spotted horse named "Pinto" because of his freckled face, the name stuck for his entire life. 

Pinot was known for a children's storytelling record album and illustrative read-along book set in 1946. He became popular during the late 1940s and served as the mascot for Capitol Records.
Three Clowns: Abbott and Costello with Pinto Colvig as Bozo the Clown.
The Bozo the Clown character first appeared on US television in 1949 portrayed by Colvig.
Bozo the Clown gets the bird from a bird to the enjoyment of the kids in the audience. Pinto Colvig plays the clown on KTTV's Bozo Circus. (c.1949)
After the creative rights to Bozo were purchased by Larry Harmon in 1956, the character became a common franchise across the United States, with local television stations producing their own Bozo shows featuring the character. Harmon bought out his business partners in 1965 and produced Bozo's Big Top for syndication to local television markets not producing their own Bozo shows in 1966, while Chicago's Bozo's Circus, which premiered in 1960, went national via cable and satellite in 1978.

Willard Scott Remembers His Bozo Days.

Performers who have portrayed Bozo, aside from Colvig and Harmon, include Willard Scott (1959–1962), Frank Avruch (1959–1970), Bob Bell (1960–1984), and Joey D'Auria (1984–2001). Bozo TV shows were also produced in other countries including Mexico, Brazil, Greece, Australia, and Thailand.
The Jackson 5 and sister Janet on Bozo's Circus
Bozo appeared in the animated series "Bozo: The World's Most Famous Clown." (1958-1962; 157 episodes) The five-minute animated adventures of Bozo and his adolescent sidekick Butch follow their journey to crazy, wild, and exciting places.

Bozo was created as a character by Livingston, who produced a children's storytelling record album and illustrative read-along book set, the first of its kind, titled Bozo at the Circus for Capitol Records and released in October 1946. Colvig portrayed the character on this and subsequent Bozo read-along records. The albums were very popular and the character became a mascot for the record company and was later nicknamed "Bozo the Capitol Clown."
This is a promotional film made by Capitol Records to promote records starring "Bozo The Capitol Clown," the character created by Alan W. Livingston. This film would be sent to record and department stores in the early 1950s and played before the appearance of Bozo at live venues.

Many non-Bozo Capitol children's records had a "Bozo Approved" label on the record jacket. In 1948, Capitol and Livingston began setting up royalty arrangements with manufacturers and television stations for use of the Bozo character. KTTV in Los Angeles began broadcasting the first show, Bozo's Circus, in 1949 featuring Colvig as Bozo with his blue-and-red costume, oversized red hair, and whiteface clown makeup on Fridays at 7:30 p.m.

In 1956, Larry Harmon, one of several actors hired by Livingston and Capitol Records to portray Bozo at promotional appearances, formed a business partnership and bought the licensing rights (excluding the record-readers) to the character when Livingston briefly left Capitol in 1956. Harmon renamed the character "Bozo, The World's Most Famous Clown" and modified the voice, laugh and costume. He then worked with a wig stylist to get the wing-tipped bright orange style and look of the hair that had previously appeared in Capitol's Bozo comic books. He started his own animation studio and distributed (through Jayark Films Corporation) a series of cartoons (with Harmon as the voice of Bozo) to television stations, along with the rights for each to hire its own live Bozo host, beginning with KTLA-TV in Los Angeles on January 5, 1959, and starring Vance Colvig, Jr., son of the original "Bozo the Clown," Pinto Colvig.

Unlike many other shows on television, "Bozo the Clown" was mostly a franchise as opposed to being syndicated, meaning that local TV stations could put on their own local productions of the show complete with their own Bozo. At its zenith, Harmon's franchise employed more than 200 Bozos, and 183 television stations around the country carried the syndicated television show, "Bozo the Clown."

Another show that had previously used this model successfully was fellow children's program Romper Room. Because each market used a different portrayer for the character, the voice and look of each market's Bozo also differed slightly. One example is the voice and laugh of Chicago's WGN-TV Bob Bell, who also wore a red costume throughout the first decade of his portrayal.

The wigs for Bozo were originally manufactured through the Hollywood firm Emil Corsillo Inc. The company designed and manufactured toupees and wigs for the entertainment industry. Bozo's headpiece was made from yak hair, which was adhered to a canvas base with a starched burlap interior foundation. The hair was styled and formed, then sprayed with a heavy coat of lacquer to keep its form. From time to time, the headpiece needed freshening and was sent to the Hollywood factory for a quick refurbishing. The canvas top would slide over the actor's forehead. With the exception of the Bozo wigs for WGN-TV Chicago, the eyebrows were permanently painted on the headpiece.

In 1965, Harmon bought out his business partners and became the sole owner of the licensing rights. Thinking that one national show that he fully owned would be more profitable for his company, Harmon produced 130 of his own half-hour shows from 1965 to 1967 titled Bozo's Big Top which aired on Boston's WHDH-TV (now WCVB-TV) with Boston's Bozo, Frank Avruch, for syndication in 1966.

Boston's WHDH-TV Channel 5, produced a local, weekday version of the Bozo show between 1959 and 1970. Frank Avruch played the title role. These excerpts are from a 1966 broadcast.

Avruch's portrayal and look of Bozo resembled Harmon's more so than most of the other portrayer's at the time. Avruch was enlisted by UNICEF as an international ambassador and was featured in a documentary, Bozo's Adventures in Asia.

The show's distribution network included New York City, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., and Boston at one point, though most television stations still preferred to continue producing their own versions. 

The most popular local version was Bob Bell and WGN-TV Chicago's Bozo's Circus, which went national via cable and satellite in 1978 and had a waiting list for studio audience reservations that eventually reached ten years.

Bozo's Circus is On The Air!
Chicago's local history:
Other titles were: Bozo, Bozo's Circus, and The Bozo Super Sunday Show.

WGN-TV's first incarnation of the show was a live half-hour cartoon showcase titled Bozo, hosted by character actor and staff announcer Bob Bell in the title role performing comedy bits between cartoons, weekdays at noon for six-and-a-half months beginning June 20, 1960. After a short hiatus to facilitate WGN-TV's move from Tribune Tower in downtown Chicago to the city’s northwest side, the show was relaunched in an expanded one-hour format as Bozo's Circus, which premiered at noon on September 11, 1961. The live show featured Bell as Bozo (although he did not perform on the first telecast), host Ned Locke as "Ringmaster Ned," a 13-piece orchestra, comedy sketches, circus acts, cartoons, games, and prizes before a 200+ studio audience.
1963 Photo postcard of Oliver O. Oliver (Ray Rayner), Bozo the Clown (Bob Bell), Sandy the Clown (Don Sandburg), and Ringmaster Ned (Ned Locke) on WGN-TV Bozo's Circus
In the early months of the series, a respected English acrobatic clown, "Wimpey" (played by Bertram William Hiles) worked on the show, providing some legitimate circus background and performing opposite Bell's Bozo in comedy sketches. Hiles continued to make periodic guest appearances on the show into the mid-1960s.
In October 1961, Don Sandburg joined the show as producer and principal sketch writer, and also appeared as the mute clown "Sandy the Tramp," a character partly inspired by Harpo Marx. By November 1961, another eventual Chicago television legend joined the show's cast, actor Ray Rayner (complete biography), as "Oliver O. Oliver," a country bumpkin from Puff Bluff, Kentucky. Rayner was hosting WGN-TV's Dick Tracy Show (which also premiered the same day as Bozo's Circus) and later replaced Dick Coughlan as host of Breakfast with Bugs Bunny, later retitled Ray Rayner and His Friends. WGN musical director Bob Trendler led the WGN Orchestra, dubbed the "Big Top Band."
Ray Rayner was the first
Ronald McDonald. 1968-69.
SIDEBAR: Ronald McDonald - Immediately following Willard Scott's three-year-run as WRC-TV Washington, D.C.'s Bozo, the show's sponsors, McDonald's drive-in restaurant franchisees John Gibson and Oscar Goldstein (Gee Gee Distributing Corporation), hired Scott to portray "Ronald McDonald, the Hamburger-Happy Clown" for their local commercials on the character's first three television 'spots.' 
McDonald's replaced Scott with other actors for their national commercials and the character's costume was changed.
One of them was Ray Rayner (Oliver O. Oliver on WGN-TV's Bozo's Circus), who appeared in McDonald's national ads in 1968. In the mid 1960s, Andy Amyx, performing as Bozo on Jacksonville, Florida, television station WFGA, was hired to do local appearances of Ronald McDonald periodically. 
Andy recalls having to return the wardrobe to the agency after each performance.

Unused ticket and "visit" pin for Bozo's Circus broadcast of July 2, 1964. The ticket came with an "I Visited Bozo's Circus" pin attached; the marks where the pin was attached to it can be seen on the image. The ticket can be dated by the date it was valid for the television show. Both the ticket and the pin were issued by WGN-TV as promotional items for the show and for the WGN-TV station. In the case of the Bozo Show, there was once an 8-10 year wait for tickets to be issued for a valid broadcast date. "What do you want, a Bozo button?"
Games on the show included the "Grand Prize Game" created by Sandburg, wherein a boy and girl were selected from the studio audience by the Magic Arrows, and later the Bozoputer (a random number generator), to toss a ping-pong ball into a series of successively numbered buckets until they missed.

If they made the winning toss into the sixth bucket, they (and an "at-home player") received a cash prize, a bike, and, in later years, a trip. For many years, the cash prize for Bucket #6 was a progressive jackpot growing by one "silver dollar" each day "until someone wins them all." The Grand Prize Game became so popular, Larry Harmon, who purchased the rights to the Bozo the Clown character, later adapted it for other Bozo shows (as "Bozo Buckets" to some and "Bucket Bonanza" to others) and also licensed home and coin-operated versions.

In October 1968, Bell was hospitalized for a brain aneurysm and was absent from the show for several months. Meanwhile, Sandburg resolved to leave the show for the West Coast but stayed longer while Bell recuperated. To pick up the slack, WGN-TV floor manager Richard Shiloh Lubbers appeared as "Monty Melvin," named after a schoolmate of Sandburg's, while WGN Garfield Goose and Friends and Ray Rayner and His Friends puppeteer Roy Brown created a new character, "Cooky the Cook." Sandburg left the show in January 1969 and Bell returned in March. Lubbers left as well with Brown staying on as a permanent cast member.
Magician Marshall Brodien demonstrates magic tricks at the Baer's Treasure Chest's Professional Magic Shop, upstairs.
Magician Marshall Brodien demonstrated and sold magic tricks to professional magicians at The Magic Center in the "Baer's Treasure Chest" at 19 West Randolph Street, Chicago in the early 1960s. Brodien began making semi-regular guest appearances in which he frequently interacted with the clowns, he began appearing as a wizard character in an Arabian Nights-inspired costume in 1968 and by the early 1970s he evolved into "Wizzo the Wizard."

From the beginning of the show until 1970, Bozo appeared in a red costume; Larry Harmon, the owner of the character's license, insisted Bozo wear blue. Harmon did not have his way regarding the costume's color in Chicago until after Don Sandburg, who was also the show's producer, left for California.

A prime-time version titled Big Top was seen September through January on Wednesday nights in 1965 through 1967.

Ray Rayner left Bozo's Circus in 1971 and was briefly replaced by actor Pat Tobin as Oliver's cousin "Elrod T. Potter" and then by magician John Thompson (an acquaintance of Roy Brown's and Marshall Brodien's) as "Clod Hopper." (Tobin previously had played Bozo on KSOO-TV in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Thompson has appeared on A&E's Criss Angel Mindfreak.) Rayner periodically returned to guest-host as himself in his morning show's jumpsuit as "Mr. Ray" when Ned Locke was absent. The show had its 500,000th visitor in the same year. 
Left to Right; Clod Hopper (1972-1973), Cooky (1968–1994), Ray Rayner (Oliver O. Oliver 1961–1971), and Bozo. Ray Rayner was still helping out Bozo's Circus after his character ended in 1972.

By 1973, WGN gave up on Thompson and increased Brodien's appearances as Wizzo. That same year, the National Association of Broadcasters issued an edict forbidding the practice of children's TV show hosts doubling as pitchmen for products. This resulted in major cutbacks to children's show production budgets.

In 1975, Bob Trendler retired from television, and his Big Top Band was reduced to a three-piece band led by Tom Fitzsimmons. Locke also retired from television in 1976 and was replaced by Frazier Thomas, host of WGN's Family Classics and Garfield Goose and Friends, at which point Garfield Goose and Friends ended its 24-year run on Chicago television with the puppets moving to a segment on Bozo's Circus. As the storyline went, Gar "bought" Bozo's Circus from the retiring Ringmaster Ned and appointed "Prime Minister" Thomas as the new Circus Manager. In 1978 when WGN-TV became a national superstation on cable and satellite through what is now WGN America, the show gained more of a national following.
Wizzo and Bozo in the late 70s.
In 1979, Bozo's Circus added "TV Powww!" where those at home could play a video game by phone. How did this work?[1] 
TV Powww! with Frances Eden of WKPT (c.1980)

By 1980, Chicago's public schools stopped allowing students to go home for lunch and Ray Rayner announced his imminent retirement from his morning show and Chicago television. The show-stopped issuing tickets; the wait to be part of the audience was eight years long.

Beginning a summer hiatus and airing taped shows the next year pushed the wait-time back to ten years. On August 11, 1980, Bozo’s Circus was renamed "The Bozo Show" and moved to weekdays at 8:00 a.m., on tape, immediately following Ray Rayner and His Friends. On January 26, 1981, The Bozo Show replaced Ray Rayner and His Friends at 7:00 a.m. The program expanded to 90 minutes, the circus acts and Garfield Goose and Friends puppets were dropped, and Cuddly Dudley (a puppet on Ray Rayner and His Friends voiced and operated by Roy Brown) and more cartoons were added. In 1983, Pat Hurley from ABC-TV's "Kids Are People Too" joined the cast as himself, interviewing kids in the studio audience and periodically participating in sketches.

On May 1, 1984, Larry Harmon as Bozo the Clown, announced his write-in candidacy for president of the United States. That afternoon, dressed as Bozo, he arrived at Columbia University in a 1977 Cadillac limousine accompanied by “secret service” men wearing suits, sunglasses, and red clown noses.
The college punk band "Nasty Bozos ’84" hosted the event and performed during the announcement. Earlier that day, Bozo creator Larry Harmon appeared on the Today Show, explaining that he went into children’s television to become a “doctor of humor, love, peace, and understanding in this world.” He further described his decision to run for president, against Ronald Reagan (R) and Walter Mondale (D), as a response to media calls to “put the real Bozo in the White House." It was reported that two assassination attempts were made on Bozo's life, but maybe just comedy. Harmon was never at a loss for ideas when it came to promoting Bozo. Arizona, the only state to report the number of votes for Bozo which turned out to be only 21 write-in votes.

The biggest change occurred in 1984 with the retirement of Bob Bell, with the show still the most-watched in its timeslot and a ten-year wait for studio audience reservations. After a nationwide search, Bell was replaced by actor Joey D'Auria, who would play the role of Bozo for the next 17 years.
Bob Bell sadly retired from his position as Bozo in 1984 and with that decision, an end of a wonderful era in Chicago Broadcasting occurred. There was a wonderful special aired on WGN-TV entitled "Bob Bell: The Man Behind The Make-up" and it gave insight into a man that we knew very little about.
In 1985, Frazier Thomas died and Hurley filled in as host for the final six shows that season, stepping into a semi-authority character. In 1987, Hurley was dropped and the show's timeslot returned to 60 minutes. In 1987, a synthesizer, played by "Professor Andy" (musician/actor Andy Mitran), replaced the three-piece Big Top Band.
Roy Brown began suffering heart-related problems and was absent from the show for an extended period during the 1991–92 season. This coincided with the show's 30th anniversary and a reunion special that included Don Sandburg as Sandy, who also filled in for Cooky for the first two weeks that season. Actor Adrian Zmed (best known from ABC-TV's T.J. Hooker), who was a childhood fan of Bozo's Circus and former Grand Prize Game contestant, also appeared on the special and portrayed himself as a "Rookie Clown" for the following two weeks. Actor Michael Immel then joined the show as "Spiffy" (Spifford Q. Fahrquahrrr). Brown returned in January 1992, initially on a part-time basis but suffered additional health setbacks and took another extended leave of absence in the fall of 1993. Brown's presence on the show remained, though, as previously aired segments as Cooky and Cuddly Dudley were incorporated until 1994 when he and Marshall Brodien retired from television. Later that year, WGN management decided to get out of the weekday children's television business and buried The Bozo Show in an early Sunday timeslot as The Bozo Super Sunday Show on September 11, 1994; WGN's decision to relegate the program to Sundays coincided with the launch of the WGN Morning News (which debuted five days earlier), a weekday morning newscast that originally launched as an hour-long program (the move of Bozo effectively resulted in the cancellation of the station's then 2-year-old Sunday morning newscast, whose 8 a.m. timeslot Bozo took over).

Immel was replaced by Robin Eurich as "Rusty the Handyman," Michele Gregory as "Tunia" and Cathy Shenkelberg as "Pepper." In 1996, Shenkelberg was dropped and the show suffered another blow in 1997 when its format became educational following a Federal Communications Commission mandate requiring broadcast television stations to air a minimum of three hours of educational children's programs per week. In 1998, Michele Gregory left the cast following more budget cuts.

In 2001, station management controversially ended production citing increased competition from newer children's cable channels. The final taping, a 90-minute primetime special titled Bozo: 40 Years of Fun!, was taped on June 12, 2001, and aired July 14, 2001. By this time, it was the only Bozo show that remained on television. The special featured Joey D'Auria as Bozo, Robin Eurich as Rusty, Andy Mitran as Professor Andy, Marshall Brodien as Wizzo and Don Sandburg as Sandy. Also present at the last show were Billy Corgan of The Smashing Pumpkins, who performed, and Bob Bell's family. Many of the costumes and props are on display at The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Reruns of The Bozo Super Sunday Show aired until August 26, 2001. Bozo returned to television on December 24, 2005, in a two-hour retrospective titled Bozo, Gar & Ray: WGN TV Classics. The primetime premiere was #1 in the Chicago market and continues to be rebroadcast and streamed live online annually during the holiday season.

Bozo also returned to Chicago's parade scene and the WGN-TV float in 2008 as the station celebrated its 60th anniversary. He also appeared in a 2008 public service announcement alerting WGN-TV analog viewers about the upcoming switch to digital television. Bozo was played by WGN-TV staff member George Pappas. Since then, Bozo continues to appear annually in Chicago's biggest parades.

Few episodes from the show’s first two decades survive; although some were recorded to videotape for delayed broadcasts, the tapes were reused and eventually discarded. In 2012, a vintage tape was located on the Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection website archive list by Rick Klein of The Museum of Classic Chicago Television, containing material from two 1971 episodes. WGN reacquired the tape and put together a new special entitled "Bozo's Circus: The Lost Tape," which aired in December 2012.

On October 6, 2018, Don Sandburg, Bozo's Circus producer, writer, and the last surviving original cast member passed away at the age of 87. Four months later, WGN-TV paid tribute to Sandburg and the rest of the original cast with a two-hour special titled "Bozo's Circus: The 1960s."

"WHO'S YOUR FAVORITE CLOWN?" _____________________

URBAN MYTH: Krusty the Clown was based on Bozo. 
MYTH BUSTED: Krusty the Clown was created by cartoonist Matt Groening and partially inspired by Rusty Nails, a television clown from Groening's hometown of Portland, Oregon. He was designed to look like Homer Simpson with clown makeup, with the original idea being that Bart worships a television clown who was actually his own father in disguise. Bob Bell (1960-1984), Bozo the Clown, whose voice was later the pattern for that of Krusty the Clown. Krusty made his television debut on January 15, 1989, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "The Krusty the Clown Show." Krusty then was on The Simpsons sitcom which began on December 17, 1989.

Character                 Actor                        Years
Bozo                        Bob Bell                    1960–1984
Oliver O. Oliver Ray Rayner              1961–1971
Sandy                      Don Sandburg         1961–1969
Ringmaster Ned        Ned Locke                 1961–1976
Mr. Bob                    Bob Trendler             1961–1975
Cooky                      Roy Brown                1968–1994
Wizzo                      Marshall Brodien        1968–1994
Elrod T. Potter Pat Tobin                   1971–1972
Clod Hopper            John Thompson          1972–1973
Frazier Thomas Himself                      1976–1985
Pat Hurley                Himself                     1983–1987
Bozo                       Joey D'Auria               1984–2001
Professor Andy Andy Mitran                1987–2001
Spiffy                      Michael Immel       1991–1994
Rusty                      Robin Eurich              1994–2001
Pepper                   Cathy Schenkelberg    1994–1996
Tunia                      Michele Gregory          1994–1998

Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

[1]TV POWWW! was a franchised television game show format, in which home viewers controlled a video game via telephone in hopes of winning prizes.
TV Powww! with Frances Eden of WKPT (c.1980)

The TV POWWW format, produced and distributed by Florida syndicator Marvin Kempner, debuted in 1978 on Los Angeles station KABC-TV as part of A.M. Los Angeles, and by the start of the next decade was seen on 79 local television stations (including national superstation WGN as part of Bozo's Circus) in the United States, as well as several foreign broadcasters. While most stations had dropped TV POWWW by the mid-1980s, stations in Australia and Italy were still using it as late as 1990.

Stations were originally supplied with games for the Fairchild Channel F console, but following Fairchild's withdrawal from the home video game market, Intellivision games were used. Kempner later unsuccessfully attempted to interest both Nintendo and Sega in a TV POWWW revival.

While the underlying technology was standardized across participating stations, the format of TV POWWW's presentation varied from market to market. Many presented TV POWWW as a series of segments that ran during the commercial breaks of television programming (a la Dialing for Dollars), while some (such as KTTV in Los Angeles) presented TV POWWW as a standalone program.

In the video game being featured, the at-home player would give directions over the phone while watching the game on their home screen. When the viewer determined that the weapon was aiming at the target, they said "Pow!", after which that weapon would activate.

Accounts vary as to what kind of controller technology was involved. Some sources state that the gaming consoles sent to the stations were modified for voice activation. However, a 2008 WPIX station retrospective claimed that for the station's version, where the player said "Pix" (Pron: picks), an employee in the control room manually hit the fire button when the caller indicated a shot.

One of the pitfalls of the gameplay was that, due to broadcasting technicalities, there was a significant lag in the transmission of a television signal. The player would experience this lag when playing at home, which likely made playing the game somewhat more difficult. (For similar reasons, such a game would be impossible in digital television without the use of a second video chat feed for the player, due to the time it takes to process and compress the video stream; most stations also mandate a seven-second delay to prevent obscenities from reaching the air.)

Saturday, May 18, 2019

The Chicago River Flood of 1992.

On April 13, 1992, the Chicago River mysteriously sprung an underground leak that flooded subways and basements across the Chicago Loop with up to 40 feet of fishy water. People were evacuated and the power went off while a mass of debris quietly began swirling in the river, directly above a breach in Chicago’s historic underground freight railway network.
Lying 40 feet underground, the railway network once linked four public stations and many large businesses in The Loop. Over the years, the tunnels supplied telecommunications, delivered coal, transported mail, and took excavation debris to the shore of Lake Michigan where it was used to create the land under Grant Park, Soldier Field and McCormick Place.
In the early twentieth century, buildings were actually constructed with deep foundations in order to access these handy waterproofed tunnels directly (and possibly illegally).

Unfortunately, after the tunnels were abandoned in 1959, the redundant access shafts were mostly bricked up and forgotten about. At least, this was the case until the early hours of the 13th when the basements of City Hall, The Merchandise Mart, Chicago Hilton and Towers, the Federal Reserve Bank, and many other business district buildings and subways began to flood.
It was decided that the breached section of the tunnel underneath the river had been slowly deteriorating under pressure created from a piling being driven too close to the tunnel wall during remedial work on the Kinzie Street Bridge back in 1991. 
Pumping dirty river water from marshall Field's flooded basement.

Allegedly, urban explorers had noticed what was initially a small leak inside the tunnel, which had been reported during a cable inspection but there was a delay in deciding who would fix it.
Chicago’s resulting flood (or ‘leak‘ as it was called for insurance purposes) caused around $1.9 billion worth of damage. After attempts to close the breach by dropping rocks from above, the tunnels were finally drained, drilled, and plugged. To prevent further problems, the section underneath the river was eventually sealed off from the rest of the network and the tunnels have since been secured after a terrorist threat.

Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Lydia Moss Bradley, Philanthropist and Founder of Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois.

Lydia Moss Bradley (1816–1908)
Lydia Moss Bradley was a wealthy philanthropist famous for her humanitarian works in Illinois and the independent management of her wealth. A pioneer in business and philanthropy, she founded Bradley Polytechnic Institute (now Bradley University) in 1897. Bradley and her accomplishments would be notable in any age, but to achieve all of this as an independent woman in the 19th century makes her simply amazing.

Lydia Moss was born in Vevay, Indiana on July 31, 1816, the daughter of Zeally and Jennett Glasscock Moss. Prior to Lydia’s birth, Zeally Moss owned a plantation in Kentucky, but decided that he did not want to make a living based on slavery. He reportedly, “gave the place rent free to his Negroes to work out their own living, while he crossed over into free territory to make his home and rear his family.” 

Lydia Moss Bradley believed that industriousness was required of all able-bodied members of a community. Despite her limited education – in a neighbor’s kitchen with no heat, few books and handmade quill pens – Lydia learned the practical things of life and developed the strong business sense that would serve her so well as an adult.

Lydia’s father gave a young colt that had lost its mother to his daughter to raise. After raising enough money for a saddle and bridle, and enjoying the horse as the only access to a social life in those days, she sold it in exchange for 40 acres of forested land. She cleared the land and sold the timber, and met Tobias Bradley, who was running the sawmill where her timber was processed.

Marriage and Family
On May 11, 1837, at age 31, Lydia married Tobias Bradley, and the newlyweds initially lived with her parents in Vevay. Their first child, Rebecca, was born January 20, 1839. That same year, Zeally Moss died leaving the family farm to Lydia. Lydia gave birth to their second daughter, Clarissa, on October, 26, 1843, but Rebecca died on September 2, 1845.

In 1847, Lydia and her family, including her mother, moved to Peoria, Illinois to join her brother William Moss. With the proceeds from the sale of their land holdings in Vevay, the Bradleys purchased a large tract of land in Peoria, which was in its early development, and an excellent place for Tobias Bradley and William Moss to prosper in business ventures.

Over the next three decades the Bradleys prospered in real estate and banking. In the early days, Lydia was the housewife and mother, while Tobias became a leading businessman with many entrepreneurial endeavors. He was one of the founders of First National Bank in Peoria and helped establish the first public library there.
Unfortunately, the Bradleys suffered the deaths of five of their six children in rapid succession. Daughter Rebecca had died in 1845 before the move to Illinois, while daughter Clarissa and son Tobias Moss (born April 28, 1847) died during the first year at Peoria. Daughter Mary lived less than a year, dying on April 25, 1852, and son William died August 25, 1855 at the age of two. Daughter Laura (born April 24, 1849) lived longer than any of the other children, dying in 1864 at the age of fourteen.

During these same difficult years, in business dealings the Bradleys were charmed and soon became quite wealthy. In the early days Tobias ran another sawmill, captained the steamboat Avalanche owned by William Moss, and joined Moss in a distilling business, which ran successfully for many years. Tobias also continued to purchase land and bought stock in new companies.

After losing all of their children, the Bradleys began thinking about constructing a monument to their deceased children. They discussed the idea of an orphanage, but Lydia later decided that such institutions were often ill-equipped to help young people acquire the skills needed to become independent, which was her main interest.

Then came the final blow in 1867 when Tobias Bradley was killed in a carriage accident at age 56. Rather than becoming absorbed in her own grief and allowing herself to be protected by her wealth, Lydia took over the management of her estate, which was valued at $500,000. Within ten years, the estate doubled to over $1 million and then doubled again.

At the time of his death, Tobias Bradley was the president of the First National Bank of Peoria. Lydia inherited the stock which he owned in the bank, and became a member of the Board of Directors. 
Lydia sits for a photograph with the First National Bank in Peoria Board of Trustees, the first female member of a national bank board in America.
For twenty-five of the nearly thirty-four years she served as a board member, she held the position of Director. Although it is difficult to determine if any other women in the country held similar positions, it is possible the she was the first female member of a national bank board in the United States.

In 1869, just before marrying Edward Clark, Lydia Moss Bradley became the first American woman to draft a prenuptial agreement to protect her assets. She was savvy enough be careful with her wealth, and was unwilling to place herself in a position of vulnerability. The agreement, which Clark signed, declared that if the marriage did not last each would retain their individual holdings. Bradley and Clark divorced in 1873.

Career in Philanthropy
In Peoria, Bradley gave land to the Society of St. Francis to build a hospital, now known as the OSF St. Francis Medical Center. In 1884, she built the Bradley Home for Aged Women to care for widowed and childless women, and funded the construction of the Universalist church. She also donated over 100 acres of land to the City of Peoria for a park, later named in memory of her daughter Laura.

Lydia Moss Bradley finally decided that she wanted to establish a place of higher learning as a lasting memorial to her husband and children. She began investigating schools as models for the one she planned to endow through her will. In 1877 Bradley visited Rose Polytechnic Institute in Indiana which offered degrees in engineering and the sciences because she wanted to give young people “the most practical assistance at the best time of their lives to make them independent, self-supporting, useful men and women.”

During her research, Bradley learned that the cost of such a school would be far greater than the value of her estate, so she decided to continue her business efforts in order to fully endow a school of the highest standards. One of the ways in which she made such a substantial increase in her wealth was her ability to improve the quality of land.

She owned 680 acres of Manito Marsh; she had the land drained and built farm buildings and fences, and began cultivating the land for farming, but the crops did poorly. When the crops failed to improve over time, she sent samples of the soil to Champaign for analysis. The soil was very rich, but it lacked potash. By amending the soil, Bradley’s farms became successful.

The farmers working her land benefitted, the land became useful, neighboring farmers followed suit and improved their own crops, and the value of the land was increased dramatically. Bradley had purchased this marsh land for $10 per acre, and when the crops became successful, the lots sold for up to $140 per acre.

Bradley was a strong, independent woman at a time when women were still expected to be submissive, but her willingness to seek out experts to aid her in her decision making was perhaps the greatest key to her success. In 1885, after nearly doubling the value of the estate left to her by her husband, she hired W.W. Hammond as her business manager, starting a relationship which lasted until her death and beyond – Hammond managed the affairs of Bradley’s school until his own death in 1920.

Hiring Hammond was a wise decision because he was not only astute in business matters, he was also a lawyer and was subsequently able to protect her interests. Bradley met with Hammond every morning at her home, an imposing brick residence Tobias Bradley built in 1858. Every Sunday, she took a carriage ride to Springdale Cemetery and placed flowers from her own gardens on the graves of her deceased loved ones.
The historic Lydia Moss Bradley house on Moss Avenue in Peoria, Illinois.
Bradley Polytechnic Institute
As a first step toward her goal of establishing a school, in 1892 Bradley purchased a controlling interest in Parsons Horological School in LaPorte, Indiana, the first school for watchmakers in America, and moved it to Peoria with its 100 students, full staff of teachers and all. She specified in her will that the school should be expanded after her death to include a classical education as well as industrial arts and home economics: being the first object of this Institution to furnish its students with the means of living an independent, industrious and useful life by the aid of a practical knowledge of the useful arts and sciences.
One of the best pieces of advice Bradley received came from William Rainey Harper, president of the University of Chicago in October 1896. After looking over her finances he assured her she had sufficient funds, and soon convinced her to move ahead with her plans and establish the school during her lifetime.
Bradley Horology Hall: dedicated on October 8, 1897.
Bradley Polytechnic Institute, now Bradley University, in Peoria, Illinois.
Bradley Polytechnic Institute was chartered on November 13, 1896. Mrs. Bradley provided 17.5 acres of land, $170,000 for buildings, equipment and a library, and $30,000 per year for operating expenses. On April 10, 1897, ground was broken for Bradley Hall and work moved ahead quickly. With 14 faculty and 150 students, classes began in Bradley Hall on October 4, 1897 – with 500 workers still hammering away.
Bradley Hall and Horological School, 1906.
The Chicago Times Herald article about Mrs. Bradley at the school’s dedication on October 8, 1897 stated: the few sentences she uttered were compressed the ideals she had cherished for half a century. She said she hoped the institute would be a real benefit to mankind; that it would be the means of making better men and women; that boys and girls would find in the new institution of learning an incentive to intellectual life was her ardent wish.
Later Years
Bradley knew that to safeguard her initial plans for the Bradley Polytechnic Institute, she could not leave many issues open to interpretation. She purposely placed a majority of Peorians on the board and had the ratio of residents written into the charter to make certain the school always served the interests of the community.

Establishing the school during her lifetime gave Lydia Moss Bradley the enormous emotional satisfaction of seeing the creation brought about by her efforts. All records indicate that she rarely missed special events at the Institute. She is said to have entertained students in her kitchen and garden some afternoons, and she is almost always reported to have been an honored guest on founder’s days and graduations.

In many speeches and memorial addresses after her death, those who knew her felt that the Institute had a profound effect on Bradley’s happiness in her later years. Students, faculty and trustees were also glad that they had the opportunity to express their appreciation to their school’s founder while she lived. Without that satisfaction, she would have had far less reason to live such a long and active life.

Pleased with its progress, Mrs. Bradley transferred to the school the rest of her estate, including nearly 1,000 different pieces of property, reserving its use and profits during her lifetime. At Founder’s Day in 1906 she announced an additional gift to build Hewitt Gymnasium, now Hartmann Center for the Performing Arts.
The Hewitt Gymnasium, 1912.
By 1899 the Institute had expanded to accommodate nearly 500 pupils, about equally divided between men and women, and offered courses in biology, chemistry, food work, sewing, English, German, French, Latin, Greek, history, manual arts, drawing, mathematics and physics.
Lydia Moss Bradley at her home on Moss Avenue in Peoria, Illinois.
Lydia Moss Bradley developed deep convictions on work, skill, thrift and economy. Although her family had become quite prosperous in land holdings during her childhood, every member of the family worked on the farm. Even in her later years as one of the wealthiest citizens in the Peoria area, business manager W. W. Hammond reported:
"Mrs. Bradley never forgot how to work, and until within a short time of her death still made her own butter, raised her own eggs, salted down her own meat and tried out her own lard. She would not have considered herself a good housekeeper had she not done so. The housewife of those times was expected to stock the larder with meats and fruits, to spin the yarn, make the clothing, bedding and carpets, and to prepare food in plenty for all who chanced to be present when meal time came round. All these things Mrs. Bradley did."
Lydia Moss Bradley died on January 16, 1908, at age 91, and is buried at Springdale Cemetery and Mausoleum, Peoria, Illinois.

The Institute continued to grow and develop to meet the educational needs of the region. It became a four-year college offering bachelor’s degrees in 1920 and a full university with graduate programs in 1946, when it was renamed Bradley University. Today it is a fully accredited institution that provides education in engineering, business, communication, teacher education, nursing, physical therapy, fine arts and the liberal arts and sciences.

In 1998, Bradley was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.