The original inhabitants of the area that had become the State of Illinois in 1818 included: The Chickasaw tribe, the Dakota Sioux tribe, the Winnebago (Ho-Chunk, and the Shawnee tribe.
The indigenous tribes of the Chicago area were the Potawatomi, Ojibwe, and Odawa Nations, as well as the Miami, Winnebago (Ho-Chunk), Menominee, Sauk (Sac), Meskwaki (Fox), Kickapoo tribes, and the Illinois Confederacy.
The Illinois, aka Illiniwek and Illini [the Illinois is pronounced as plural: Illinois'], was a Confederacy of Indian tribes consisting of the Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Peoria, Tamarais (aka Tamaroa, Tamarois), Moingwena, Mitchagamie (aka Michigamea), Chepoussa, Chinkoa, Coiracoentanon, Espeminkia, Maroa, and Tapouara tribes that were in the Algonquin Indian family. The Illinois called themselves "Ireniouaki" (the French word was Ilinwe).
MIDWESTERN INDIAN CHIEFS, 1865.
Annawan, Illinois – Winnebago (Ho-Chunk)
Aptakisic, Illinois – Potawatomi
Ashkum, Illinois – Potawatomi
Big Foot, Illinois – Potawatomi
Chebanse, Illinois – Potawatomi
Du Quoin, Illinois – Kaskaskia
Half Day, Illinois – Potawatomi
Kewanee, Illinois – Potawatomi
Makanda, Illinois – Unknown Tribe / aka Makauda or Markands
Metamora, Illinois – Potawatomi
Mettawa, Illinois – Potawatomi
Niota, Illinois – The name "Niota" was based on the name of a fictional character in a dime novel , a Native American chief named "Nee-o-tah."
Oneco, Illinois – Potawatomi
Patna, Illinois – Kickapoo
Saunemin, Illinois – Kickapoo
Shabbona, Illinois – Potawatomi
Shobonier, Illinois – Potawatomi
Wapella, Illinois – Meskwaki(Fox)
Waponsee, Illinois – Potawatomi
Wauponsee, Illinois – Potawatomi
 Dime Novel - Any cheaply produced popular fiction published in the United States between 1860 and 1930 might be called a dime novel, providing it was published on paper covers and issued in a series.
Dr. Max Thorek founded the International College of Surgeons (ICS) in 1935 to promote the exchange of surgical knowledge and foster understanding and goodwill worldwide. He had an equally noble goal in establishing the International Museum of Surgical Science ─ to enrich people's lives.
Dr. Max Thorek
Beginning in 1950, through the efforts of Dr. Thorek, the Museum received donations of objects and artwork from many of the national sections of the ICS, individual surgeons and collectors, and other institutions. Shipments of artifacts, paintings, sculptures, and books arrived, and the Museum began to take shape. A historic lakeside mansion was acquired to house the Museum adjacent to the ICS headquarters.
The Museum opened to the public on September 9, 1954. One of the first exhibits to be installed was the Hall of Immortals, containing twelve large stone statues of significant figures in medicine and the allied sciences. In further reverence to great scientists, surgeons and discoveries of the past, a Hall of Murals was created with a series of large paintings depicting the development of surgical science through the ages.
In 1959, the Museum marked the dedication of galleries devoted to France, Mexico, Spain and the Netherlands, with many more national rooms inaugurated over the years. The founding leaders of the Museum hoped to make the collection meaningful to the public by organizing exhibits by nation. Each room, hallway, and stair landing was devoted to one nation or region's historical collection to trace a particular nation's contribution to surgery.
In 1990, new exhibits were developed based on historical themes and surgical disciplines. This type of exhibit provides a more appropriate historical context for the collections. The "Anatomy in the Gallery" exhibition program, developed in 1998 to introduce a contemporary art element into the historical Museum, presents work by contemporary artists dealing with various medically related themes. The exhibitions include work of a challenging and innovative nature about anatomy, death, disease/wellness, disability, and other medical issues.
Over the past decade, the International Museum of Surgical Science has significantly strengthened its educational programs and exhibits and conserved its noteworthy collections and historic landmark building. The Museum looks forward to continuing this progress and to a future of bringing the international aspects of science, history and art to an increasing audience from the entire world.
The historic lakeside mansion at 1524 N. Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, which is now the International Museum of Surgical Science, was constructed in 1917 under the direction of Eleanor Robinson Countiss to house her family. Her father, an executive of the Diamond Match Company, generously provided the funds to build the home.
The elegant structure was designed to follow the historical lines of Le Petit Trianon, a French chateau on the grounds of Versailles completed in 1770 for Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The noted Chicago architect Howard Van Doren Shaw was hired to design the Countiss mansion with modifications, including a fourth floor added to the original design, adding a door on the side street, and opening up the northernmost bay for a carriage drive.
Original interior finishes of Italian marble and cut stone; decorative plasterwork, metal fixtures and hardware; eight marble fireplaces; and a gilded metal grand staircase are among the features which have been preserved.
The Countiss family was the sole owner of the building until 1950 when it was acquired by Dr. Max Thorek and the International College of Surgeons. After several years of renovating the building and forming the Museum collection, the Museum opened its doors to the public for the first time in 1954 under the direction of Dr. Max Thorek.
One of the few remaining lakefront mansions, and the only one open to the public, the building received historic status in 1988, is listed in the National Register and the Illinois Register of Historic Places and is a City of Chicago Landmark.
The Museum's four floors are filled with extraordinary artifacts and paintings, and sculptures that interpret the primitive and modern healing practices of Eastern and Western civilizations. The Museum's collections and exhibits portray the mysteries and milestones that have shaped modern surgical science.
Austrian amputation saw with a reversible blade. (c.1500)
Medical artifacts, apparatus and instruments comprise most of the material in the Museum's collections. Over 7,000 medical artifacts spanning centuries of worldwide medical history, from acupuncture to X-ray therapy, are represented in the collections. Among the exceptional artifacts is an Austrian amputation saw with a reversible blade (c.1500); original X-rays taken by radiology pioneer Emil Grubbé (c.1910); the Lindbergh perfusion pump, which enabled doctors to keep organs functioning outside the body, invented by the renowned aviator Charles Lindbergh and Nobel Prize-winning surgeon Alexis Carrel (1935); and a unique collection of heart valves donated by Dr. Juro Wada (c.1960-80).
Fine art is featured in the collections through over 600 paintings, prints and sculptures, primarily portraits of individuals and historical depictions of specific procedures or events. Highlights include a portrait of Dr. Edward Jenner by John Russell (1790) and the original plaster cast of the death mask of Napoleon (1821). Significant artworks were commissioned by the Museum for the collections in 1950-53, including the Hall of Immortals and the Hall of Murals.
An Iron Lung
The Museum Library contains over 5,000 books and bound journals, including extremely rare early medical books from the 16th to 18th centuries.
The manuscript collection contains over 650 letters and papers from prominent figures in medical history, extending over four centuries, donated by Dr. Max Thorek in 1954. This collection includes documents from Edward Jenner, Florence Nightingale, Thomas Guy, Laennec, Langenback, Bergmann, Billroth, Malpighi, Rush, Wistar, and others.
The first courthouse was built of logs on the property. Now City Square and Seth Hodges won the contract for the structure. The record shows that construction costs totaled $128.66.
Ten years later, the county had outgrown this 18' x 24' log structure and planned a larger one on the same site. The new brick building measured 50' x 50' and - costing roughly $15,000 - was considerably more expensive than the first. The contractors were Harbird Weatherford and Jefferson Weatherford.
Abraham Lincoln frequently represented his clients in this courthouse. In fact, when the State Preservation Agency examined the Courthouse records in the 1990s, they found over 3,000 documents with the signature of A. Lincoln. Those original documents are now in Springfield, but copies are on file in the Macoupin County Courthouse.
The courthouse that Lincoln practiced in no longer stands in the center of town because shortly after the end of the Civil War in 1867, elected officials decided that the prosperous county needed an even larger structure.
Four prominent citizens were commissioned to erect a new courthouse: A McKim Dubois, George H. Holliday, T.L. Loomis and Isham J. Peebles. They selected E.E. Meyers as the architect and determined that the construction not begin until there were sufficient funds in the county treasury.
The court also ordered that a property tax of 50¢ per $100 is assessed in Macoupin County and that the monies be used for county purposes, i.e., a new courthouse.
Bonds totaling $50,000 were issued for ten-year terms and bore interest at 10%. Over $13,000 had been spent by September, and the cornerstone was set in place in October. The cost escalated dramatically from then on. By January 1869, nearly $500,000 had been paid, and the building was still incomplete. The great dome and roof would cost an additional $125,115. More bonds were issued, and by the time the courthouse was officially completed in 1870, the project had cost a staggering $1,342,000. Thus evolved the nickname, the "Million Dollar Courthouse."
The courthouse was an exorbitant expense to the taxpayers, and rumors of a scandal involving misused appropriations also tarnished the project. Initially, the blame was laid on Judge Thaddeus Loomis, and George H. Holliday, county clerk, and Judge Loomis were apparently innocent of any wrongdoing. However, we may never know the truth about Mr. Holliday because one night in 1870, he boarded a train out of town and simply disappeared.
Upon completion, this courthouse became the largest county courthouse in the United States, with the possible exception of one in New York City. It was even larger than the Illinois Statehouse. While the courthouse still serves as the seat of county government, it has also become a showplace that attracts tourists, architects and artists from across the country and overseas.
Despite the scandal and the expense, citizens supported this project with amazing dedication. In 1910, a mere 40 years after the cornerstone had been set in place, the last bond was burned, and the debt retired. To mark the occasion, 20,000 people gathered in Carlinville for a memorable two-day celebration on July 20 and 21. At a pre-determined hour, all mine whistles, church bells, alarms and anything else that could make a loud noise raised quite a ruckus. However, the noise wasn't limited to one mighty blast because history records that athletic contests, balloon rides and even airplane rides gave the citizens plenty to cheer about. A parade of cars stretched over a mile also entertained the crowds. That seems like a minor event today, but it was impressive at a time when so few people owned cars.
Originally opened in 1922, but was rebuilt in the Art Deco style in 1937, when it received its current appearance. This included the addition of a balcony, bringing the seating capacity to 725, and an elegant Art Deco-style marquee.
In 1998, a state-of-the-art sound system was added. It is one of the few theaters in Illinois (outside Chicago) with such a high-tech sound system.
The theater closed in September 2012.
The Lorraine is not to be confused with the newer Lorraine II Theaters.
The Frostop in Chrisman, Illinois, was built in 1954 by E.O. Tate. Rena Riggen started working for Mr. Tate in 1955. In 1956, Rena and her husband, Robert (Bob) Riggen, began leasing the Frostop from Mr. Tate. They leased the restaurant for three years, but in 1959, Mr. Tate sold the Frostop to Luther Vandevander. Rena stayed on and worked for him. Two years later, Rena and Bob bought the Frostop. Since 1961, the Frostop in Chrisman has been run by the Riggen family.
In the early 1990s, Rena & Bob's children took over the restaurant. Their children, Sue & Dave, now run the restaurant.
Riggen's Frostop still uses car hops and does not have indoor seating.
The restaurant offers service to cars, picnic tables, and to-go orders. The menu consists of hamburgers, hot dogs, BBQ sandwiches, catfish dinners, Italian beef dinners, pizza, ice cream, and of course, the famous root beer in a frosty mug.
The Frostop is seasonal and is open from mid-March until mid-October due to the cold Midwestern winters. The Riggen's Frostop has been Chrisman's local landmark and hangout since it was built.
Frostop in Chrisman, Illinois.
Frostop is a name that, at its zenith, was most familiar to millions of thirsty Americans. In 1926, Mr. L. S. Harvey opened his first Frostop Root Beer stand in Springfield, Ohio. It was so successful that word quickly spread about his operation and its delicious, creamy root beer.
Soon, Frostop stands spread throughout the nation until the onset of World War II. During the war, expansion was curtailed due to shortages of building materials and equipment, as well as the flavors and sweetening agents so necessary in the manufacture of Frostop Root Beer.
After the war, Mr. Harvey, who was convinced that Frostop was the finest root beer ever made, resumed the expansion of the chain. Under new aggressive ownership in the 1950s, Frostop experienced tremendous growth during the post-war boom years of the drive-in era. The signature brown and yellow, neon-lit stands, with their gigantic, revolving root beer mug on top, dotted the countryside and became a favorite place to rest and enjoy an icy cold frosted mug of Frostop.
The purpose of this sketch is to describe the visit made by Abraham Lincoln to Evanston in 1860, including such particulars as appear to be worthy of a permanent record. This visit, brief as it was, formed one of the most cherished episodes of our history.
Abraham Lincoln was Nominated for President on May 18, 1860 at the Republican National Convention May 16–18 in Chicago, Illinois.
Many of the particulars have been obtained from those who were living in Evanston at the time and who was present at the informal reception given to Mr. Lincoln on the evening of his one night's stay in our town. Some of these recollections have already appeared in print at different times, but with additions derived from recent interviews and correspondence with those who were participants in the events referred to, are here brought together and formed into a connected account.
In order to provide a proper perspective and background to the incidents related in this account, it seems desirable to describe the state of the country briefly at the period in which they occurred and of Mr. Lincoln's connection with the events of that time as well as some account of Evanston as it was in the year mentioned.
Stirring Events of the Time
During the early months of 1860, the Republican party, which some three years before had suffered defeat in its first presidential campaign under the leadership of John C. Fremont, was anxiously considering who should be selected as the standard bearer in the approaching campaign. It was generally thought that the convention to be held in the following May would name William H. Seward as the candidate. The famous Lincoln and Douglas debates had taken place in the summer and fall of 1858 and had given a national reputation to Lincoln, whose fame had heretofore been confined to his own state. His speech at Cooper Institute in New York on February 27, 1860, caused his name to be frequently mentioned as a possible presidential candidate. Under Buchanan's weak and vacillating administration, the arrogance and hostility of the southern states had become more pronounced. The people of the north found in Mr. Lincoln's clear-cut statements the best expression of the burning issues of the day.
The "Sand Bar" Case
It was soon after Mr. Lincoln's return from the East that he spent a week or more in Chicago in attendance upon the United States District Court as one of the counsels for the defendants in the "Sand Bar" case, referred to in the papers of the time as "one of the most notable trials in the annals of our courts." It was just after the conclusion of this case that Mr. Lincoln made his visit to Evanston.
A few days previously, he had accepted an invitation to address the citizens of Waukegan on political topics, upon which the Chicago Press and Tribune, one of his staunch friends and supporters, remarked: "The announcement will, of course, bring together one of the largest crowds that Waukegan can furnish."
Evanston Assuming Importance
At that time, Evanston was a village of some twelve hundred inhabitants and was developing a boom as a suburb of Chicago. An article in the paper just referred to, which appeared about this time, spoke of Evanston as having the most handsome residences and the best situation of any town in the vicinity of Chicago, and the writer predicted that between the two places would be built up a continuous line of stores and residences. The Chicago and Milwaukee railroad, afterward known as the Chicago and Northwestern Railway, had been open for six years. There was only one track, and trains passed each other at sidings at different stations on the line. Leaving the terminal station at the corner of Kinzie and Canal streets in Chicago, the stations were: Clybourn Junction, Belle Plaine (Cuyler), Chittenden (Rosehill), and Calvary. Ravenswood and Rogers Park had not existed at that time. The village of Bowmanville lay a mile west of Rosehill. All of these places except Bowmanville had come into existence with the opening of the railroad, and Evanston itself had borne that name only some six years. However, under older names, it could claim a greater antiquity.
Becomes a Seat of Learning
Northwestern University was established in Evanston the same year the railroad was opened in 1854. However, its first building had not been completed until the following year. The University, from the beginning, had given the dominant tone to the community life of the place, and many of those who had more recently made their homes there had been attracted by its influence. These, with the families of the sturdy pioneers, who had opened the country to settle in the previous generation, formed a population of a high degree of force and vigor, which has ever since been distinguished for its wide influence and the high character of its people. Besides the one building completed and occupied by the University, situated at the northwest corner of Davis Street and Hinman Avenue, the Garrett Biblical Institute (affiliated with the University) had likewise one building, afterward known as Dempster Hall, completed in the same year that the University's first building was opened.
In determining the date on which Mr. Lincoln visited Evanston, I have fixed it as Thursday, April 5, I860. In an article published in the Century Magazine for December 1881 by Leonard W. Voile (to be referred to presently), the author says that Mr. Lincoln went to Evanston on "Thursday." He says in another place that the visit was made "in the early part of April." There is no conclusive evidence on this point to be obtained either from Volk's article or from any of those whose recollections we shall hereafter refer to.
According to the date on the Chicago Press and Tribune title page, the first Thursday in that month was on the 5th. If the visit had been made a week later, on the 12th, it would still have been possible to speak of it as having taken place "in the early part of April." It seems impossible, however, to place the date of the visit on the 12th because, in the issue of the Chicago Press and Tribune of the 13th of that month, a paragraph is quoted from a Bloomington paper stating that Mr. Lincoln was in that city. It seems safe, therefore, to set the date of the visit as we have given it, namely, Thursday, April 5th, 1860.
The House in which Lincoln Spent the Night
Mr. Lincoln visited Evanston upon the invitation and as the guest of his old friend, Julius White, who afterward became a general in the Union Army. Mr. White was a Chicago Board of Trade member and was harbor master. He lived in Evanston in a house situated at the northwest corner of Ridge Avenue and Church Street, on the lot where Mr. Richard C. Lake's house now stands. It was in this house that Mr. Lincoln spent the night on the occasion of his visit.
The house was built by Alexander McDaniel and by him sold to Rev. Philo Judson, who enlarged it and occupied it for a time. It was a two-story house with a horizontal cornice, the roof sloping upwards from four sides to a short ridge at the top. The front door was in the middle of the east side of the house, with rooms on each side of the hallway. There was no covered porch, simply a platform with steps descending from the front door.
About the year 1884, this house was moved away by Mr. Robert Hill when he erected his residence on the present site, which in later years has become the home of Mr. Lake. When the house was moved, it was separated into two parts, the larger part being taken to the lot now known as 1227 Elmwood Avenue, adjoining the High School on the south, and remodeled into a comfortable residence, and is now occupied by Mr. Albert D. Sanders. It does not, however, at all resemble the house in its original form. A much smaller part of the original house was moved to another location.
RESIDENCE OF JULIUS WHITE IN 1860
Situated at the northwest corner of Ridge Avenue and Church Street, Evanston, Illinois.
In this house, Abraham Lincoln was entertained by Julius White on April 5, 1860. During the evening of that day, Mr. Lincoln addressed an Assemblage of Evanston citizens from the porch. The location of the room in which Mr. Lincoln slept is marked with an X.
The house was moved around 1884 to 1227 Elmwood Avenue. After its move, changes were made to the roof, and a covered porch was added. The site of Mr. White's former residence was occupied by the residence of Mr. Richard C. Lake. The view presented has been drawn from descriptions furnished by members of the family of General White and from contemporary witnesses.
When Mr. Julius White (afterward General) first came to Evanston to live in February 1859, he took possession of the house just described; but after he had joined the army, more than a year subsequent to the events here referred to, he moved his family into a smaller house, a story and a half cottage on the southeast corner of Asbury Avenue and Church Street, fronting Church street.
In later years, the story and a half house referred to was moved to a location in the western part of the town, now known as 2319 Prairie Avenue. From the fact that General White once lived in the house arose a tradition that this was the house in which Mr. Lincoln passed the night, and later occupants have taken pride in relating this story, for which there is no other foundation than that above mentioned.
Other Houses Claim the Honor
It is remarkable how many houses we have here in Evanston which lay claim to the honor of sheltering Mr. Lincoln during the night that he spent in Evanston. We have shown that the house on Prairie Avenue was not the one, though often claimed as such.
Another house that it is claimed was the one in which Mr. Lincoln was entertained is the cottage at 1513 Greenwood Boulevard, now occupied by Daniel Devine and his family. Mrs. Devine stated in an interview with the writer that at the time Mr. Lincoln visited Evanston, this house stood a short distance east of its present location, on the southeast corner of Greenwood Boulevard and Asbury Avenue. She says that no members of the family who then occupied the house are now living in Evanston and that a number of tenants—a dozen or more—have occupied the house during the fifty years since the visit of Mr. Lincoln. She even points out the living room in her house as the room in which Mr. Lincoln received the guests. Before her marriage to Mr. Devine, Mrs. Devine was a widow, Mrs. English by name, and formerly helped in housekeeping duties at Dempster Hall, when Mr. Langworthy kept a boarding house for students there. She could not recall General White or any member of his family and could not remember having heard his name.
A house known as the old Carroll house, formerly at 1465 Elmwood Avenue, was demolished by the city authorities in August 1909. It was supposed by some that this house was the one in which Mr. Lincoln was entertained.
Still another house, situated at 1028 Judson Avenue, is thought by some as the house in which Air. Lincoln was entertained. As is well known, this house was occupied by General White after the war, when it stood at the northwest corner of Davis Street and Chicago Avenue, and he moved to its present location and practically rebuilt it. The fact that the house was once the residence of General White has given currency to this belief, and it is often pointed out by residents in the neighborhood as having a historical interest for the reason that Mr. Lincoln was once a guest under its roof.
The honor, however, must be denied to all those mentioned above, except the house on the northwest corner of Ridge Avenue and Church Street, as described in the previous paragraph.
One way, perhaps, to account for these various claims would be to suppose that Mr. Lincoln visited Evanston more than once; it can be positively stated, however, that the distinguished visitor never stayed but one night in Evanston. It is well known that traditions, such as those referred to, grow from small beginnings, originating with half-remembered events often repeated in conversation, and at length have taken on the character of positive statements.
Mr. Volk's Recollections
A reference to Mr. Lincoln's visit to Evanston is found in an article published in the Century Magazine for December 1881 by Leonard W. Volk, the sculptor. Mr. Volk had met Mr. Lincoln during the period of the Lincoln-Douglas debates in 1858 and had requested him to sit for a bust. Mr. Lincoln said that he would be glad to do so at the first opportunity.
Mr. Volk, in the course of his article, thus relates:
"I did not see him again for nearly two years. I spent most of the winter of 1860 in Washington, finishing a statuette of Senator Douglas, and just before leaving in the month of March, I called upon Mr. Douglas' colleague in the senate from Illinois [Hon. Lyman Trumbull], and asked him if he had an idea as to who would be the probable nominee of the Republican party for president, that I might model a bust of him in advance. He replied that he did not have the least particle of an idea who he would be, only that it would not be Judge Douglas.
I returned to Chicago, got my studio in the 'Portland block' in order and ready for work, and began to consider whose bust I should first begin in the clay when I noticed in a morning paper that Abraham Lincoln was in town—retained as one of the counsels in the 'Sand Bar' trial. I at once decided to remind him of his promise to sit with me, made two years before. I found him in the United States District courtroom (in a building known at the time as the 'Larmon block'), his feet on the edge of a table, and his long, dark hair standing out at every imaginable angle. He was surrounded by a group of lawyers, such as James F. Joy, Isaac N. Arnold, Thomas Hoyne and others. Mr. Arnold obtained his attention on my behalf when he instantly arose and met me outside the rail, recognizing me at once with his usual grip of both hands. He remembered his promise and said, in answer to my question, that he expected to be detained by the case for a week. He added:
"I shall be glad to give you the sittings. When shall I come, and how long will you need me each time?
Just after breakfast, every morning, would,' he said, 'suit him the best, and he could remain till court opened at 10 o'clock.' I answered that I would be ready for him the next morning, Thursday. This was in the early part of April 1860.
Very well, Mr. Volk, I will be there and go to a barber and have my hair cut before I come.
I requested him not to let the barber cut it too short and said I would rather he would leave it as it was, but to this, he would not consent. Then, all of a sudden, he ran his fingers through his hair and said:"
Wanted to Be Released
"No, I cannot come tomorrow, as I have an engagement with Mr. W_____ to go to Evanston tomorrow and attend an entertainment; but I'd rather come, and sit for the bust than go there and meet a lot of college professors and others, all strangers to me. And I will be obliged if you will go to Mr. W_____'s office now, and get me released from the engagement. I will wait here till you come back.
So off I posted, but Mr. W_____ would not release him 'because,' he said, 'it would be a great disappointment to the people he had invited.' Mr. Lincoln looked quite sorry when I reported to him the failure of my mission.
'Well,' he said, 'I suppose I must go, but I will come to you Friday morning.'
He was there promptly—indeed, he never failed to be on time. My studio was in the fifth story, and there were no elevators in those days, and I soon learned to distinguish his steps on the stairs, and am sure he frequently came up two, if not three, steps at a stride. When he sat down the first time in that hard, wooden, low-armed chair that I still possess and which has been occupied by Douglas, Seward and Generals Grant and Dix, he said: 'Mr. Volk, I have never sat before a sculptor or painter—only for daguerreotypes and photographs. What shall I do?'
I told him I would only take the measurements of his head and shoulders that time, and the next morning, Saturday, I would make a cast of his face, which would save him a number of sittings. He stood up against the wall, and I made a mark above his head and then measured up to it from the floor and said: 'You are just twelve inches taller than Judge Douglas, that is, just six feet one inch.' "
In the above extract, which is printed just as it appeared in the Century article, the name of Mr. White is indicated by the initial W followed by a blank line.
Also, it is to be noted that in the last sentence, Mr. Lincoln's height is given as six feet one inch, whereas the fact was that he was six feet four inches in height. This was an error either on the part of the author or the printer.
HARVEY B. HURD (1828-1906) He was a resident of Evanston for fifty-two years.
Mr. Hurd's Description
When the day arrived for Mr. Lincoln to go to Evanston, he was taken in charge by Mr. Harvey B. Hurd, who had been designated to act as his escort. Mr. Hurd has left on record an account of this journey, which is as follows:
"On his return from his stumping tour through New England in the spring of 1860, ringing back with him the fame of his great Cooper Institute speech, he [Mr. Lincoln] was given a reception in Evanston at the home of my then next-door neighbor, General Julius White, and it was my good fortune to be designated to escort him from Chicago to his house. On the way, Mr. Lincoln and I occupied the same seat on the railway car next to the stove. Putting his long legs up behind the stove and leaning down toward me, he related to me some of the more amusing episodes in his New England tour, such as he thought I would recognize as characteristic of Yankeedom ( I had told him I was a native of Connecticut), some of them bringing out in strong light the issues of the campaign and how he had presented them.
Calling to mind his great debate with Mr. Douglas and how he had grown in popularity all over the country and that he was being talked of for the presidency, I could not help a passing analysis of his characteristics. The way he impressed me at that time was well summed up by a countryman at another time. 'Not that he knew it all and that I knew little or nothing, but that he and I were two good fellows, well met, and that between us, we knew lots.' His bearing at the reception, while easy, was at the same time dignified and pleasing. It required no stretch of the imagination to think of him as the coming president of the United States. He inspired in all a desire to see him nominated and elected to that high office. There was no lurking doubt as to his fitness."
General Julius White (1819-1890) He was a resident of Evanston for thirty-one years.
General Julius White (as he soon became known) deserves further mention in this place. Soon after Mr. Lincoln's inauguration in 1861, he was appointed collector of the port of Chicago. White resigned this office later in the year to raise a regiment, the Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteers, of which he became the colonel. The fact that he resigned from an office paying a salary several times larger than the one he accepted in the army while having a large family to support was an act of true patriotism and should be remembered to his credit. He was afterward promoted to Brigadier General and, after the war, received a commission of Brevet Major General . Four of the commissions received by General White at different times, two of them signed by Abraham Lincoln, are now in the possession of the Evanston Historical Society.
Many of the old residents of Evanston still vividly remember, after a lapse of half a century, the occasion of Mr. Lincoln's visit here, and the accounts which are here gathered are mainly compiled from their recollections of that most interesting event. They are not all livings whose testimony is here given, but the privilege they enjoyed of meeting and grasping the hand of the greatest American of the nineteenth century was a rare one. The occasion forms one of the most interesting episodes in our history.
On Mr. Lincoln's arrival in Evanston, he was taken for a carriage drive about the village by Mr. White and then to the residence of the latter. A general invitation had been extended to the people to come in the evening and shake hands with the distinguished visitor. It was easy to spread the news of anything of the kind in a small community such as Evanston at that time, and the people were quick to respond to the invitation. The house was well filled with visitors, and Mr. Lincoln stood in front of the fireplace in the drawing room and conversed with the people as they arrived. Many did not enter the house but contented themselves with standing outside on the lawn and giving vent to their enthusiasm by blowing horns, singing and shouting, which was called "serenading" in the parlance of the time. These "doings" were naturally followed by calls for a speech, a request which the visitor complied with by appearing on the front steps of the house and addressing the people assembled on the lawn. "I have a sort of general recollection of his speech," relates Dr. Henry M. Bannister, who was present. "He spoke in a high, clear voice explaining his standpoint in politics and the reasons for it, making a special point that he had been guided by his sense of right." There was a general handshaking and exchange of greetings, usual on such occasions. Afterward, a number of those outside went into the house and were presented to the visitor.
Did Not Speak in Church
It is frequently stated that Mr. Lincoln made a speech in the old Methodist church, which at that time stood on the lot where the Evanston Public Library now stands, but this is not so. Mr. Lincoln made no speech there. None of those whose evidence has been given regarding his visit mentions his having done so, and it was vigorously denied by the late Mr. Frederick D. Raymond, who was an indefatigable investigator in the field of local history. A picture of the old Methodist church was printed in one of the papers some years ago with the statement that here, Mr. Lincoln made a speech when he visited Evanston, which seemed to give authority for the belief entertained by many persons. Still, it may be positively stated that no speech was made by Mr. Lincoln in the church.
In an interview with William Carney in 1901, Mr. F. D. Raymond asked him about his recollections of the Lincoln visit to Evanston, which he said he remembered, and that Mr. Lincoln made a speech from the front steps of General White's house. Mr. H. E. Lombard, now living in Kansas, was a resident of Evanston at that time and, writing in regard to Lincoln's visit, says: "A number of us serenaded him, and he made us a talk from the porch."
"I remember as though it was but yesterday," wrote Mr. Martin Mohler, a former student at the university, in an article printed in The Evanston Index in 1903, "the tall, lanky form of Lincoln and his expressive countenance as he stood shaking hands with admiring friends, while a stream of wit and humor, and story and laughter, came bubbling up from the great soul within."
Mrs. Bannister's Account
Mrs. Emma White Bannister, a daughter of General White, wrote recently, giving an account of the visit, which she remembers distinctly. <l Father told us one day that he would bring Mr. Lincoln up to spend the night, adding, 'he may be our next president.' He arrived on the evening train and dined with us, after which he addressed the Evanstonians from the front porch. Word had been sent to the leading citizens that Mr. Lincoln would speak, and they soon assembled in goodly numbers in front of the house. At the conclusion of his address, my father invited all who desired to come in and meet Mr. Lincoln. They surged into the house, were introduced by father, and all received a cordial greeting and handshake from Mr. Lincoln. My father's house at that time was full of children, and during Mr. Lincoln's visit, he endeared himself to us all by his individual and kindly notice."
Mr. Pearsons' Story
Mr. Henry A. Pearsons' memories of the occasion are extremely interesting. At a banquet of the Men's Club at the First Methodist church in February 1906, he spoke as follows:
"Mr. Lincoln came to Evanston in 1860, soon after he began to acquire a national reputation and had been mentioned as the man whom Illinois would bring out as a candidate for president. Evanston was then only a village of some 1,200 inhabitants, and, of course, all who could get there went to the house of Julius White to meet the distinguished guest, we boys to cheer and make a welcoming noise and our elders to shake his hand. I have a photograph of him taken in 1858, which pictures him as I remember him. The characteristics which I remember most distinctly were the pleasant smile and kindly greeting he gave us, the cheerful speech and apt words of his address, the exceeding tallness of the man, and the awkward way he had of turning himself one way or the other and bending his knees a little when emphasizing a point or coming to a climax. A really good quartet, led by our long-time friend and fellow citizen, Charles G. Ayars, called for Lincoln's special commendation; and I recall how he put his arms around Avars' shoulders and said: 'Young man, I wish I could sing as well as you. Unfortunately, I know only two tunes. One is "Old Hundred," and the other isn't."
Mr. J. Watson Ludlam was then, without doubt, the tallest citizen of Evanston. Mr. Lincoln stood up against him, back to back, to see which was the taller." Mr. Pearsons, on several occasions afterward, while an officer of the Eighth Illinois Cavalry, saw Mr. Lincoln at reviews and was one of the guards of honor at the time his body lay in state in the Capitol at Washington.
Mr. James D. Ludlam's Story
Only a short time before his death in the fall of 1908, Major James D. Ludlam wrote his recollections of the visit in a letter to Mr. Frank R. Grover, to whom he had promised to furnish the details for the records of the Evanston Historical Society. "In redeeming my promise to you," he writes, "to furnish my recollections of Abraham Lincoln's visit to Evanston, I send the following, only reminding you that fifty years is a long time for one's memory to be exactly accurate." He said he received an invitation from Mr. Julius White, "who lived, I think, in the house built by Mr. Judson over on what we then called the ridge." He met there "some twenty or thirty friends," some of whom he mentions by name: Mr. and Mrs. John L. Beveridge, Rev. Philo Judson, Harvey B. Hurd, Mr. and Mrs. N. P. Iglehart, Mr. and Mrs. John A. Pearsons, Mrs. Appleton, Miss Mattie Stewart and Miss Isabel Stewart. "Mr. Hurd led the conversation principally with the help of Mr. Beveridge at the start, but soon Mr. Lincoln had full control, and in conversation and storytelling captured the whole company."
Later in the evening, someone proposed having some music, and Miss Isabel Stewart was invited to play the piano, which she did in a very delightful manner. Do not let the young readers of this sketch imagine the young lady seated at an "upright," for pianos of that form were not made in those days. Square pianos were in use, and the one in Mr. White's house was probably of this pattern, the kind we used to call "megatheriums," which we used to behold with awe and admiration, including the player.
A Square Grand Piano (or "Megatherium" as call in Lincoln's time) was popular for domestic music-making from the time of its invention in the mid-18th century (possibly by the Saxon organ-builder Ernst Christian Friderici) to about 1860 in Europe and to about 1880 in the United States.
Chopin and Grieg on an 1864 Steinway Square Grand Piano.
Listen to the unbelievably deep rich sound.
Mr. Lincoln then asked for some vocal music, and Mr. J. D. Ludlam was invited to sing. This he consented to do on condition that someone would play for him. He was then introduced to the young lady at the piano, whom he did not know before, and after a song or two, the singing became general. It should be noted here that this introduction to the young lad}', Miss Isabel Stewart, was more important in its results than seems at first sight, for in about a year after that, the singer and the player were married. Thus the Lincoln visit has a particular interest as the starting point of a romance.
Measured with Watson Ludlam
James D. Ludlam and J. Watson Ludlam were brothers, both tall men, the latter the taller of the two, and with them was John L. Beveridge, who was over six feet in height. Another tall man was present by the name of Homer Curtice, a conductor on the Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad, the name by which the present Chicago and Northwestern Railway was then known. Poor Curtice was killed by the cars up near Kenosha some years later.
Mr. Lincoln had the habit of taking notice of men of unusual stature, as is recalled by an incident occurring a few weeks later than the events of which we are here writing. It is related, in Holland's "Life of Lincoln," that when Judge William D. Kelley of Pennsylvania, himself a man nearly as tall as Mr. Lincoln, called on him at Springfield at the head of a committee to notify him of his nomination, Mr. Lincoln, after the introductions had taken place, inquired, "What is your height, Judge?" "Six feet, three," replied the Judge; "what is yours, Mr. Lincoln?" "Six feet, four," responded Mr. Lincoln. "Then, sir," said the Judge, "Pennsylvania bows to Illinois. My dear man," he continued, "for years, my heart has been aching for a president that I could look up to, and I've found him at last,—in the land that we thought there were none but Little Giants."
It was not strange that Mr. Lincoln, having this habit of observation, should notice the presence of so many unusually tall men, including himself, in the rooms of Mr. White's house. He proposed that they should measure up and compare their heights. This was done accordingly, and it was found that Mr. Lincoln and Mr. J. Watson Ludlam were exactly the same height, namely, six feet and four inches. The company remained until quite a late hour and, at length, dispersed to their homes throughout the village.
An Interesting Sequel
The sequel to Major Ludlam's story is very interesting. During the following year, events succeeded each other with startling rapidity. Mr. Lincoln was nominated and elected president, and the tremendous drama of the Civil war had opened. With many other young men from Evanston, J. D. Ludlam had joined the army of the Union and became an officer (finally major) in the Eighth Illinois cavalry. This was the only Illinois regiment in the eastern army in the early part of the war, and Mr. Lincoln came out to their encampment near Washington to visit them and made a short speech to "his boys," as he called them. He recognized Ludlam at once and asked after Miss Stewart, who had furnished the delightful music on the occasion of his visit to Evanston and invited him to call at the White House. He made calls several times, and after lunch with Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln one day, Mr. Lincoln asked him to sing for Mrs. Lincoln the same songs which he sang when he visited Mr. White's house in Evanston, a request with which he complied. This echo of the Lincoln visit to Evanston, and the romance that had its beginning at that time, throws a golden haze of sentiment over the event we have been describing and heightens the interest that the episode otherwise possesses for all who take a pride in our Evanston annals.
Mr. Lincoln's visit to Evanston was made when he had reached a period in his life when all was fair. He was at the height of his fame as the most distinguished political orator of his time. He had become the rising hope of the new Republican party and was often mentioned as a possible presidential candidate. The law case, which had required his presence in Chicago for the preceding two weeks, had just been decided (the day before) in favor of his clients. He was in the full maturity of his manhood, and he was probably as near "carefree" as he had ever been in his life.
Six weeks later, Mr. Lincoln was nominated for the presidency and, in the following November, was elected to that high office. He evidently did not forget his Evanston friends and his visit among them, for soon after he became president, he began to show his appreciation of the friends he met here. White and Beveridge became generals in the Union Army. As we have seen, the house's homely songs and good cheer in Evanston, where Mr. Lincoln was so pleasantly entertained, were repeated at the White House in Washington.
Compiled and Edited by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D.
 A Brevet was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but may not confer the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank. An officer so promoted was referred to as being brevetted.
Cashier adopted the identity of a man before enlisting in the civil war and maintained it until her death. There are over 400 documented cases of women disguising themselves as men and fighting as soldiers on both sides during the Civil War.
Cashier became famous as one of several women soldiers who served as men during the Civil War. However, the consistent and long-term (at least 53 years) commitment to a male identity has prompted contemporary scholars to suggest that Cashier was a transexual man (the error of presentism).
Cashier was very elderly and disoriented when interviewed about immigrating to the United States and enlisting in the army, and had always been evasive about early life; therefore, the available narratives are often contradictory. According to a later investigation by the administrator of Cashier's estate, Albert Cashier was born Jennie Hodgers in Clogherhead (or Clogher Head) County Louth, Ireland, on December 25, 1843, to Sallie and Patrick Hodgers. Typically, the youth's uncle or stepfather was said to have dressed his charge in male clothing to find work in an all-male shoe factory in Illinois. Even before the war's advent, Hodgers adopted Albert Cashier's identity to live independently. Sallie Hodgers, Cashier's mother, was known to have died before 1862, by which time her child had traveled as a stowaway to Belvidere, Illinois, and was working as a farmhand to a man named Avery.
Cashier first enlisted in July 1862 after President Lincoln's call for soldiers. As time passed, the need for soldiers only increased. On August 6, 1862, the eighteen-year-old enlisted in the 95th Illinois Infantry for a three-year term using the name "Albert D.J. Cashier" and was assigned to Company G. Cashier was listed in the company catalog as nineteen years old upon enlistment and small in stature.
Sources differ about how tall Cashier was. Some report 5'3", and others say 5 feet.
Many soldiers from Belvidere participated in the Battle of Shiloh as members of the Fifteenth Illinois Volunteers, where the Union had suffered heavy losses. Cashier took the train with others from Belvidere to Rockford to enlist to answer the call for more soldiers. Along with others from Boone and McHenry counties, Cashier learned to be a volunteer infantryman of the 95th Regiment at Camp Fuller. After being shipped out by steamer and rail to Confederate strongholds in Columbus, Kentucky and Jackson, Tennessee, the 95th was ordered to Grand Junction, where it became part of the Army of the Tennessee under General Ulysses S. Grant.
The regiment was part of the Army of the Tennessee under Ulysses S. Grant and fought in approximately forty battles, including the Siege of Vicksburg. During this campaign, Cashier was captured while performing reconnaissance but managed to escape and return to the regiment. In June 1863, still, during the siege, Cashier contracted chronic diarrhea and entered a military hospital, somehow evading detection.
In the spring of 1864, the regiment was also present at the Red River Campaign under General Nathaniel Banks and, in June 1864, at the Battle of Brice's Crossroads in Guntown, Mississippi, where they suffered heavy casualties.
Following a period to recuperate and regroup following the debacle at Brice, the 95th, now a seasoned and battle-hardened regiment, saw additional action in the Winter of 1864 in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign, at the battles of Spring Hill and Franklin, the defense of Nashville, and the pursuit of General Hood.
During the war, the regiment traveled a total of about 9,000 miles. Other soldiers thought that Cashier was small and preferred to be alone, which were not uncommon characteristics for soldiers. Cashier fought with the regiment through the war until honorably discharged on August 17, 1865, when all the soldiers were mustered out after losing a total of 289 soldiers to death and disease.
Historians claim the 95th had traveled 9,960 miles in three years of campaigns.
Cashier was one of at least 250 soldiers who were female at birth and enlisted as men to fight in the Civil War.
After the war, Cashier returned to Belvidere, Illinois, for a time, working for Samuel Pepper and continuing to live as a man. Settling in Saunemin, Illinois, in 1869, Cashier worked as a farmhand and performed odd jobs around the town, which can be found in the town payroll records. Cashier lived with employer Joshua Chesbro and his family in exchange for work and slept for a time in the Cording Hardware store in exchange for labor. In 1885, the Chesbro family had a small house built for Cashier. For over forty years, Cashier lived in Saunemin and was a church janitor, cemetery worker, and street lamplighter. Living as a man allowed Cashier to vote in elections and to later claim a veteran's pension under the same name. Pension payments started in 1907.
In later years, Cashier ate with the neighboring Lannon family. The Lannons discovered their friend's sex when Cashier fell ill but decided not to make their discovery public.
In November 1910, Cashier, who was working for State Senator Ira Lish, was hit by the Senator's car and broke his leg, at which time his sex true was discovered. The local hospital agreed not to divulge his sex assignment, and he was sent to the Soldiers and Sailors Home in Quincy, Illinois, on May 5, 1911, to recover. Many friends and fellow soldiers from the Ninety-fifth Regiment visited.
Cashier remained a resident of the home until March of 1913 when due to the onset of dementia, he was sent to a state hospital for the insane. Attendants there discovered his sex assignment and forced him to wear a dress. The press got a hold of the story, and soon everyone knew that Private Albert Cashier had been born as Jennie Hodgers.
Cashier lived there until an apparent deterioration of mind began to take place and was moved to the Watertown State Hospital for the Insane in East Moline, Illinois, in March 1914. Attendants at the Watertown State Hospital discovered Cashier's sex. At that point, Cashier was made to wear women's clothes again after presumably more than fifty years of dressing as a male. In 1914, Cashier was investigated for fraud by the veterans' pension board; former comrades confirmed that Cashier was, in fact, the person who had fought in the Civil War and the board decided in February 1915 that payments should continue for life.
Although initially surprised at this revelation, many of Albert Cashier's former comrades supported Cashier and protested his treatment at the state hospital.
When Cashier died on October 10, 1915, he was buried in his full uniform and given a tombstone inscribed with his male identity and military service. The tombstone was inscribed "Albert D. J. Cashier, Co. G, 95 Ill. Inf."
Cashier was given an official Grand Army of the Republic funeral service and was buried with full military honors. It took W. J. Singleton (executor of Cashier's estate) nine years to track Cashier's identity back to the birth name of Jennie Hodgers. None of the would-be heirs proved convincing, and the estate of about $282 ($8,400 today), after payment of funeral expenses, was deposited in the Adams County, Illinois, treasury.
In the 1970s, a second tombstone, inscribed with both names, was placed near the first one at Sunny Slope Cemetery in Saunemin, Illinois.
Cashier is listed on the internal wall of the Illinois memorial at Vicksburg National Military Park.
Cashier's house has been restored in Saunemin, Illinois.