Monday, February 12, 2018

Freedom Village, Illinois was America’s first Negro town founded in the early 1820s. Renamed Lovejoy, it's now called Brooklyn, Illinois.

In the early 1820s, "Mother" Priscilla Baltimore and husband John led a group of eleven families, composed of both fugitive and free blacks, to flee slavery in St. Louis, Missouri. They crossed the Mississippi River to the free state of Illinois, where they established a freedom village in the American Bottom, naming it Brooklyn.

"Mother" Baltimore was said to have purchased her freedom as an adult from her master, a Methodist minister, and saw to it that religious faith would be one of the guiding pillars of her new community. She also hoped the community would be a refuge for others fleeing slavery. She also bought the freedom of members of her family. Born in Kentucky, she tracked her white father to Missouri and bought her mother's freedom from him.
1940 Aerial Photo of Brooklyn, Illinois.
Shortly after forming their new settlement, the townspeople were visited by Bishop William Paul Quinn, a missionary minister for the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church. Bishop Quinn, after meeting with the families in the Baltimore’s home, helped found the Brooklyn A.M.E. Church in 1825. In addition to its public role as the community's church, Brooklyn A.M.E, later renamed in 1839 to Quinn Chapel A.M.E. Church, became part of a network of A.M.E. Churches that formed the Underground Railroad in Illinois. Tunnels still exist under the building that at one point secreted fugitive slaves.
Quinn Chapel A.M.E. Church, Brooklyn, Illinois.
The location of Brooklyn on the Mississippi River across from St. Louis, Missouri, helped its residents to become financially independent, providing opportunities for brick masons, carpenters, coopers, and boatmen.  Nonetheless the economic activities of blacks in Illinois were restricted by the Illinois Black Codes, enacted when the state joined the Union in 1818.  These laws restricted the occupations blacks could pursue, virtually eliminated their civil rights, and controlled the entry of new blacks into the state. Aiding runaway slaves was a felony under the law, and authorities could expel any black who could not maintain an income.  
"Mother" Priscilla Baltimore Headstones,
In 1837, five white abolitionists platted the land and created an unincorporated nearly all-black town. Thomas Osburn was one of them, and he is documented as having lived in the area for decades. Priscilla Baltimore built a house on his former land, which she occupied from 1851-1872. In the 1840s and 1850s, the black population of the village was about 200. The white settlers dominated the town politically since blacks in Illinois were not allowed to vote, but it wasn’t until 1886 that black voters, as the majority of the local electorate, regained political control of the town. 

Regional capital investment largely bypassed Brooklyn, taking place in the competing East St. Louis, Illinois, which gained the all-important railroad connection. Other white-majority towns also benefited by being part of the network of investment. "Almost none of the all-Black towns obtained a railroad." The small village soon became all black.

In 1891, then-Mayor Evans dedicated the town's new post office with the name Lovejoy (after the abolitionist Elijah P. Lovejoy, who had been assassinated in Alton, Illinois in 1837). The later high school was also named after him. Black autonomy did not automatically yield unity in the village. Tensions ran high with class and color conflicts by the early decades of the twentieth century, and evidence of political corruption. In addition, with the growth in number of young, single male workers, attracted to industrial jobs, the demographics changed and family life in the village declined.

Archeological and Historic Research
A state archeological survey was required before construction of the Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge between St. Louis and Illinois, which would require realignment of part of Rte. 3 near the village. In 2002, work revealed extensive prehistoric artifacts, so many that the researchers named the site "Janey B. Goode" after the popular Chuck Berry song, "Johnny B. Goode". This site lies within Brooklyn's incorporated limits but just east of the historical residential part of town. It lies along the southern margin of the Horseshoe Lake meander just north of the East St. Louis Mound Group of earthworks. By the end of the 2007 field season, the team had excavated 7,000 prehistoric features, making this one of the largest sites ever excavated in the USA. Most of these features are associated with the Late Woodland Patrick phase and early Terminal Late Woodland Lloyd phase, approximately from 600 AD to 1200 AD. They suggest a more complex and dense indigenous community than researchers had known lived in the area.

In association with its work, the Illinois State Archaeological Survey (ISAS) (formerly ITARP), a joint project of the state and the University of Illinois, conducted outreach with the village of Brooklyn, volunteering to survey some of the areas associated with its early 19th-century history. A team of archaeologists led by Dr. Joseph Galloy found evidence of early Afro-American occupation from 1830 to 1850, as well as material in other areas from 1850 to 1870. This discovery suggests that the remains of Mother Baltimore's Freedom Village survive beneath the surface in Upper Brooklyn. It also means that artifacts and other evidence of the town's founding may be revealed if additional excavations are conducted there in the future. This would enhance the town's historical significance and research potential.

Since the turn of the 21st century, residents have rallied around new work related to documentation of the village's rich historical past. They have worked to collect oral histories and personal accounts of the village. In 2007, residents founded the Historical Society Of Brooklyn, Illinois. The historical society, together with the ISAS' Drs. Joseph Galloy, Thomas Emerson and Miranda Yancey; Dr. Chris Fennell of the University of Illinois, and the Illinois State Museum, is working to preserve the history of Brooklyn.

ISAS also helped the historical society to review documents to locate "Mother" Priscilla Baltimore's unmarked grave at Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis. In September 2010, the Brooklyn Historical Society installed a gravestone in her honor at the cemetery. In addition, ISAS will assist the village in surveying the Brooklyn cemetery to detect gravesites and try to document the history.

Surveys in 2008 revealed that "the archaeological record of Brooklyn lies intact beneath the extensive open spaces of current-day residential parcels." In the summer of 2009, an archaeological field study began to excavate Mother Priscilla Baltimore's freedom village. The results of this collaborative project are expected to yield material that will aid the town in gaining designation for an historic district to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The Historical Society of Brooklyn and its collaborators are seeking national designation for three particularly significant sites: the late prehistoric Janey B. Goode archaeological site, identified as 11S1232; Brooklyn's historic cemetery, identified as 11S1233; and Quinn Chapel A.M.E. Church. Built in 1836, Quinn Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church was the first of that newly formed, independent black denomination to be built west of the Appalachian Mountains, as well as the first in Illinois. The AME Church was founded as a denomination by free blacks in Philadelphia and its region in 1816. 

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

Saturday, February 10, 2018

Illinois' Black Codes

In historical writing and analysis, PRESENTISM is the introduction of present-day ideas and perspectives into depictions or interpretations of the past. I believe presentism is a form of cultural bias, and it creates a distorted understanding of the subject matter. Reading modern notions of morality into the past is committing the error of presentism. I'm well aware that historical accounts are written by people and can be slanted, so I try my hardest to present articles that are fact based and well researched, without interjecting any of my personal opinions.

"Your petitioner, though humble in position, and having no political status in your State, notwithstanding I have resided in it for twenty-five years, and today am paying taxes on thirty thousand dollars, most humbly beseech you to recommend in your Message to the Legislature... the repeal of the Black Laws of this your State." Thus began John Jones's letter to Illinois Governor Richard Yates, November 4,1864. By the time Jones wrote this letter he was the best-known and wealthiest African-American in the state. Though wealthier by far than most Illinoisans, still Jones could not vote.

Born in North Carolina in 1816 or 1817, Jones had arrived about 1841 in Madison County, Illinois, where he took up residence illegally. It was not until three years later, as he prepared to move to Chicago with his wife and infant daughter, that he filed the necessary bond and received his certificate of freedom, a document required by every black person in the state. Because he had been born out of state, under the law of 1829 he was required to file a bond of $1,000 to insure that he would not become "a charge to the county," or violate any laws. Although Illinois entered the Union nominally as a free state in 1818, slavery had existed there for nearly one hundred years. It would continue to exist, albeit under increasing restrictions, until 1845.

But the elimination of legal slavery did not mean the removal of the Black Codes. Indeed, it was not until the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the adoption of the Illinois Constitution of 1870 that the last legal barriers (but not the societal) ended. Like their midwestern neighbors, most early Illinois settlers believed in white supremacy and African-American inferiority. Consequently, Illinois' constitutions and laws reflected those views.

According to John Mason Peck, an early Illinois Baptist missionary and historian, the French introduced slavery into the French-controlled Illinois country, perhaps as early as 1717 or as late as 1721. The British, who took control of the Illinois Country in 1765, permitted slavery to continue, and so did the Americans after George Rogers Clark's conquest in 1778. Although the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery or involuntary servitude, territorial and later state laws and interpretations permitted the retention of French slaves. When Congress admitted Illinois as a state in 1818, the state's constitution permitted limited slavery at the salt mines in Massac County, and it legalized the continued bondage of slaves introduced by the French. At the same time, the new constitution included a provision that would eventually free even those slaves by declaring that the children of slaves were to be freed when they reached adulthood: for women that age was eighteen, for men it was twenty-one. Thus, it appeared that the last slave would not be freed until 1839, or twenty-one years after the adoption of the state constitution and Illinois' admission into the union.

Legislators in the first General Assembly passed measures designed to discourage African-Americans from coming to Illinois. Blacks were denied suffrage, and other laws deprived them of most rights accorded free white men. African-Americans were prohibited from immigrating without a certificate of freedom. Moreover, they had to register that certificate, along with the certificates of any children, immediately upon entering the state. Among other things, the state legislature intended to discourage Illinois from becoming a haven for runaway slaves. Any runaway found in the state could be sentenced by a justice of the peace to thirty-five lashes. African-Americans assembling in groups of three or more could be jailed and flogged. Additionally, they could not testify in court nor serve in the militia. Finally, state law forbade slaveholders, under penalty of a severe fine, from bringing slaves into Illinois in order to free them.
An Illinois Certificate of Freedom.
To counteract those repressive measures, just before the General Assembly convened following the election of 1822, "Free Persons of Color" submitted a petition requesting the right of suffrage. In the memorial they noted, "We pay taxes, work on public high-ways, like others..." The petition was denied, and some legislators increased their efforts to bring additional slaves into the state. When the General Assembly convened in 1822, pro-slavery advocates succeeded in passing a resolution requiring the state's citizens to vote on whether to call a constitutional convention. That decision provoked a long and bitter struggle.

The state's leading political, religious, and social leaders engaged in a strenuous war of words in newspapers and pamphlets, in the pulpit, and on the stump. Many of the state's leading founding politicians, including its first governor, Shadrach Bond, and first lieutenant governor, Pierre Menard, held slaves and supported the introduction of a pro-slave constitution. Newly elected Governor Edwards Coles, secretary of state (British-born) Morris Birkbeck, and pioneer Baptist missionary and historian John Mason Peck led the anti-slavery forces.

Illinois voters rejected (6,822 against, 4,950 for) the call for a constitutional convention. But further repressive measures were taken against the state's African-American residents. The state's newspapers were filled with advertisements from neighboring states offering rewards for the capture and return of runaway slaves. John Crain, sheriff of Washington County, advertised that he had taken two runaway slaves into custody. Unless their owners called for them, paid the charges and removed them from the state, they "will be hired out as the law directs." Slave hunters such as William Rose of Nashville, Tennessee, advertised their services as agents to find runaways in Illinois.

Not only did Illinois newspapers carry advertisements for runaways, the state attempted to further discourage black immigration by raising new barriers. The 1829 law required any free black to register in the county seat and post a $1,000 bond to cover costs should they become indigent or violate state or local laws. Since few black men or women had such sums available, they usually had to find a friendly white man to act as surety for them. At the same time, blacks also had to register their certificates of freedom from the state from which they immigrated.
Broadside about a Fugitive Slave.
Despite the restrictions and repression, the Illinois black population continued to grow slowly. While the number of slaves continued to decline, the indenture system remained harsh and restrictive. As late as 1843, United States Senator-elect Sidney Breese, needing money to set up housekeeping in Washington, D.C., wrote to former Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Menard, offering to "place in your hands some valuable negroes with power to sell them..." By 1845, however, the last legal remnants of slavery ended when the state supreme court in Jarrot v. Jarrot, declared that even the slaves introduced by the French were entitled to freedom under the provisions of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Illinois Constitution.

The court's decision, however, did little to change the attitudes of white Illinoisans. B.T. Burke, sheriff of Macoupin County, advertised that he had incarcerated a slave recently runaway from John Henderson in Missouri. In December 1845, an Illinois resident declared in a sarcastic letter to the New York Tribune:
In Illinois, in addition to considering slavery as an evil, its concentrated wisdom, in the shape of the Legislature, considers it criminal to be a slave. If a man happens to have a dark complexion, it is prima facie evidence that he is guilty of the crime. If, through ignorance, want of friends, or other causes, he fails of producing such proof [of his freedom], he of course, is thrown into jail as a slave, to await the coming of his master, in the mean time, minutely described in a public advertisement.
Still, pressure continued to mount to do more to maintain Illinois as a "white man's state." One way to do that, believed some, was to promote the colonization of blacks in the Caribbean or in Liberia. The state had an active colonization society that included such luminaries as Stephen A. Douglas, John Mason Peck, and others. The reasoning of many is illustrated in a communication by a Belleville colonizationist who wrote:
By referring to the census of this State, from 1845, it will be seen that there has been a large increase of the free black population of St. Clair county, in the past few years... One cause, and one that is likely to increase the evil to a much greater extent still, is found in the fact, that the slave states are adopting measures to expel from their midst, their entire free colored population. Some of the largest of the free states have passed laws, prohibiting the settlement of these expelled blacks upon their territory. So they become a vagrant, floating population, to which St. Louis is a common rendezvous. But, they cannot stay there, so they are thrown into Illinois; and especially into St. Clair county. So much for the causes of the increase of our colored population.
Many Illinoisans, both for and against slavery, supported colonization. Most black and white abolitionists, however, rejected the repatriation of the nation's African descendants. They also denounced gradual emancipation and second-class status for these residents. Abolitionists generally supported both immediate emancipation and granting full citizenship with equal rights for all the nation's black residents. Although William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and John Brown were the nation's best-known abolitionists, Illinoisans John Jones, Joseph H. Barquet, and Elijah Lovejoy shared those views.
The Burning of Elijah Lovejoy's Newspaper in Alton, Illinois on November 7, 1837.
Illinois' proposed new constitution in 1847 included a requirement that the General Assembly pass laws to prohibit the emigration of free blacks into the state and to bar slaveholders from bringing slaves into the state for the purpose of freeing them. As the constitution was being debated by the state's citizens, John Jones of Chicago took the lead on behalf of Illinois' blacks to defeat the offending section. His attack on slavery called forth the image of the nation's founders by appealing to the same natural rights claimed by Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, and others in 1776. He urged the state's enlightened inhabitants to reject the barbaric slave relics from the eighteenth century:
Now, sirs, we maintain that our claims to the rights of citizenship are founded on an original agreement of the contracting parties, and there is nothing to show that color is a bar in the agreement. It is well known, that when this country belonged to Great Britain, the colored people were slaves, according to the interpretation of the then existing laws. But the darkness of the 18th century has gone by, and we live in the 19th, and in a Republic, too, wherin [sic] men understand the principles of government, and a man is regarded as a man whether his face be black or white.
There were others who shared Jones's views among both races. The Pike County Free Press and the Watchman of the Prairies both carried strong articles against the adoption of the offending article in the constitution.

The exclusion provision, which was submitted separately to the voters of Illinois, won overwhelming support. Following the adoption of the constitution, including the exclusion section, Jones again took up his pen and highlighted the constitution's inconsistencies. He noted that while the constitution declared "That All Men are born equally free and independent, and have certain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and Liberty, and of acquiring, possession and protecting property and reputation, and of pursuing their own happiness," its framers had gone on to restrict suffrage to white males. He noted that among those "called white, and whose legitimate ancestors, as far back as we can trace them, have never been held in slavery, there are many shades of difference in their complexions. Then how will you discriminate (be nice about it): And at what point will you limit the distinction?"

Later that year, the "Colored People of Chicago" met to draft resolutions opposing the new constitution and the "unjust and partial laws existing in the State of Illinois, which excludes the Free Man of Color from all access to Law by Oath, and thereby renders him dumb, so that he cannot be a party in law against a white man...." The meeting then adopted a series of resolutions expressing those views and agreed to petition the "Legislature to repeal the aforesaid unjust and partial laws."

Despite the injunction to do so, the Illinois General Assembly failed to adopt the new measures in 1849 and 1851. But in 1853, under the leadership of southern Illinois Democrat John A. Logan, the General Assembly adopted the draconian "Black Law" of 1853. For the most part, the law simply brought together in one place several existing laws. Under this law, no black from another state could remain within the Illinois borders for more than ten days. Beyond ten days and he or she was subject to arrest, confinement in jail, and a $50 fine and removal from the state. If unable to pay the fine, the law directed the sheriff to auction the offending African-American to the bidder willing to pay the costs and the tine and to work the "guilty" party the fewest number of days. If the convicted man or woman did not leave within ten days after completing the required service, the process resumed, but the fine was increased $50 for each additional infraction. Although most newspapers opposed the measure, there is but little doubt that it reflected the views of much of the state's population.

For the next twelve years, Illinois blacks labored under one of the harshest laws in the nation. But, it did not go uncontested. One of the most interesting challenges came from the pen of Joseph H. Barquet, a young black Chicagoan born in North Carolina and recently arrived from Tennessee. He began his objection to the harsh law by illustrating its absurdity when carried to its logical conclusion. Essentially, he asserted, black men will be forced to marry white women, an abhorent thought to whites. Barquet reasoned:
The recent law of inhibition against the negro, passed by our legislature, (if we can say ours, for we did not help to elect them,) bears hard, very hard against Sambo, and to lay the case before the public is my desire. Well, sir, I wish to annex myself to a wife, but the commodity in colors is scarce in our market! What shall we do? If we go from home to import one, the dear creature will be sold to some heartless Logan. What then shall we do? The laws of Illinois do not recognize the marriage tie between a white and negro, and if Mr. Logan shuts out the black girls, why we must take the white ones, that's all.
He then chided the state's leaders for their injustice to its black citizens. He warned that this act of despotism would lead to further restrictions. He concluded that "Europe smiles and taunts American liberty. Her despots smile when Illinois plucks from the eagle, emblem of our country, her lost plumage quill dipped in blood to sign slavery for freemen."

Throughout the period, Illinois blacks resisted, as best they could, the ubiquitous effects of the Black Laws. In addition to meetings and petitions objecting to the laws over the years, they formed several self-help organizations. Perhaps most important was the creation in 1839 of the Wood River Colored Baptist Association in St. Clair County. It soon developed a number of important early leaders in the state, including John Jones, the son-in-law of H. H. Richardson, one of the association's founders. The association took the lead in opposing Illinois' repressive race legislation and encouraged education, even when it had to be separate. Its leaders took the lead in organizing schools and encouraging the state to force local school districts to allocate tax money for "colored" schools in proportion to taxes paid by its colored residents. Many of the protest meetings over the years were held in church structures.

The Illinois Black Laws continued in force until the end of the Civil War. Indeed, in the midst of the Civil War, Illinois held a constitutional convention and a new constitution was submitted to the people of the state for ratification. One of the most remarkable features of that document were three provisions that wrote the Black Laws into the proposed constitution. Although Illinois voters rejected the constitution, they overwhelmingly approved the anti-black provisions. Eventually, however, with prodding from John Jones and the logic propelled by the results of the Civil War, the Illinois General Assembly repealed the Black Laws in early 1865. The repeal, however, did not confer suffrage or civil rights on the state's blacks; they had to await the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and the Illinois Civil Rights Act of 1885.

By Roger D. Bridges
Edited by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

Thursday, February 8, 2018

How Negroes in Early Springfield, Illinois Influenced Abraham Lincoln's Views on Race and Society.

In historical writing and analysis, PRESENTISM is the introduction of present-day ideas and perspectives into depictions or interpretations of the past. I believe presentism is a form of cultural bias, and it creates a distorted understanding of the subject matter. Reading modern notions of morality into the past is committing the error of presentism. I'm well aware that historical accounts are written by people and can be slanted, so I try my hardest to present articles that are fact based and well researched, without interjecting any of my personal opinions.

Negroes were a significant part of Abraham Lincoln's Springfield community. At the time of his arrival in 1837, Springfield had a Negro population of twenty-six, about one percent of the total population of 1,500. Six of those twenty-six were slaves. By the time of Lincoln's departure in 1861, the population had grown to 234 about 5 percent of the total population of approximately 5,000. These few Springfield Negroes had an impact on Lincoln that was far greater than their numbers imply.
This daguerreotype photograph is the earliest confirmed picture of Abraham Lincoln, reportedly shot in 1846 by Nicholas H. Shepherd shortly after Lincoln was elected to the United States House of Representatives.
Nevertheless, the presence of Negroes in early Springfield and their relationships with and influence on Lincoln have been largely ignored or minimized by historians. Why?

The simple answer is that most Negroes, as well as whites, were illiterate and therefore left little personal written evidence of their existence. As one Springfield Negro historian put it more than 90 years ago: “The history of the colored people of Sangamon County, like the sources of the common law is shrouded in some mystery. The writer is confronted with an embarrassing lack of available data and must draw his material from the memories of such of the older settlers as remain and to a still larger extent, from their descendants.”

Even at this late date, the shroud of mystery surrounding Springfield Negroes has not been removed by Lincoln historians. They have either overlooked or failed to examine what meager primary evidence does exist. Instead, most have relied upon secondary sources predecessor historians who often recorded incomplete or incorrect information or were silent about the presence of Negroes in Lincoln's Springfield.

Nineteenth-century Springfield historians probably judged Negroes as unimportant when recording the people and events of Springfield, an attitude that reflected the time and bore a conscious or unconscious prejudice toward Negroes as a class or race. And contemporary historians who have relied upon these earlier chroniclers have unintentionally mythologized and romanticized Lincoln and Springfield, painting a city almost devoid of color. That flawed history is based upon four myths:

THE FIRST MYTH: William Fleurville, who arrived in Springfield in 1831, was Springfield's first Negro resident and Lincoln's sole Negro personal acquaintance prior to his becoming President.

THE SECOND MYTH: Neither Negro slavery nor indentured servitude existed in Lincoln's Springfield.

THE THIRD MYTH: Prior to becoming President, Lincoln knew little of Negro life.

THE FOURTH MYTH: Springfield Negroes were passive servants and menials and either incapable of or not interested in speaking out on issues of colonization or racial justice.

To understand the influence of Springfield Negroes on the political and social education of the pre-presidential Lincoln, we must first debunk these myths.

The first myth is the incorrect focus on William Fleurville as Springfield's first Negro resident and as Lincoln's exclusive Springfield Negro personal acquaintance. He was neither.

Fleurville arrived in Springfield in the fall of 1831, thirteen years after the arrival of at least thirty-two Negro predecessors. He was not Springfield's first Negro resident.

Mark Neely's Lincoln Encyclopedia compared Lincoln's Negro "personal acquaintances" in Springfield vs. Washington, D.C., and concluded that Lincoln's personal acquaintance" with Negroes increased when he moved from Springfield to Washington. To support his conclusion, Neely named one Springfield Negro, William Fleurville, and three Washington Negroes who were servants at the White House as examples of Lincoln's "personal acquaintances." True, Fleurville was a personal acquaintance of Lincoln, but Lincoln's Springfield Negro acquaintances during his twenty-four-year residency, included others, who were at least as well known to the future president as were those Negro White House servants cited by Neely.

These may seem to be trivial points of contention, and they would be if the sole point were competition over the claim to "first-ness" or "personal acquaintanceship." But they have greater significance. Historical acceptance of Fleurville as the city's first Negro and Lincoln's only Negro friend in Springfield has made it unnecessary for historians to look for evidence of the presence of other Negroes in Springfield either prior to 1831 the date of Fleurville's arrival or after Lincoln's arrival in 1837. Fleurville has become the historian's token ante-bellum[1], Springfield Negroes, whereas other Negroes have remained largely faceless and nameless. As a result, an important component of Lincoln's Springfield environment has been ignored.

The second myth is that Negro slavery and indentured servitude didn't exist in Lincoln's Springfield. W. T. Casey, a Springfield Negro, made this erroneous assertion in his 1926 History of the Colored People. But slavery and indentured servitude existed in Springfield, both before and during Lincoln's residency.

Henry Kelly the patriarch of the first family to settle at what became Springfield brought at least one slave with him: "Negro Jack." On March 18, 1822, Henry and his wife, Mary, sold eight-year-old Negro Jack for $300. Jack was probably Springfield's first Negro resident and slave.

Two of the four original proprietors of the town of Springfield, John Taylor, and Thomas Cox, owned Negro slaves while living in Springfield. Cox, who moved to Springfield in 1823 to become the first Registrar of the Land Office, owned at least two female slaves, Nance and Dice, and most probably a young male slave, Reuben. Nance and Dice were sold by the Sheriff of Sangamon County at public auction in 1827 in order to satisfy Cox's debts. Later, Nance would be the subject of two Illinois Supreme Court cases involving the issue of slavery and the ownership of slaves by Illinois residents. One of the cases, Bailey vs. Cromwell, was argued by Lincoln.

In 1827 the Sangamon County Commissioners' Court levied a tax "on slaves and indentures or registered Negro or mulatto servants," which offers evidence that Springfield slaves were considered personal property."

The 1830 census the last taken before Lincoln's arrival listed Negroes in two categories: "free colored" and "slaves." The Springfield portion of the census lists nineteen Negroes, nine of whom were categorized as "slaves" under the names of their masters: John Taylor is listed as owning three slaves. Dr. John Todd, Mary Lincoln's uncle, is listed as owning five slaves. Temperance Watson, who lived on the land where Oak Ridge Cemetery is now situated, is listed as owning one slave.

The evidence is clear that slavery was still a part of Springfield's life at the time of Lincoln's arrival in 1837. It continued for some time thereafter. The 1840 census revealed that Springfield's population of 2,579 included 115 Negroes about 4.4 percent of the total population. Six were "slaves" and the remaining 109 were "free colored." Lincoln knew and had significant personal contacts with at least three of the slave owners, James Bell, Ninian Edwards, and William May. James Bell, listed as owning one young female slave, was a member of the trading firm of James Bell and Joshua Speed. Lincoln represented Bell in at least three legal cases, one each in 1838, 1839, and 1842.

Ninian Edwards, Mary Lincoln’s brother-in-law, was listed as owning one young male slave.

William May was listed as owning one young female slave. May had emigrated from Kentucky to Springfield around 1829 when he was appointed the third Registrar of the Springfield Land Office. He was a lawyer and a partner of Stephen T. Logan. He was also a surveyor and a minister. He was the first County Clerk/Recorder of Sangamon County. From 1834 to 1839, May was a Congressman for whom Lincoln voted on October 27, 1834. In 1842, May was elected mayor of Springfield.

Slavery did exist in Lincoln’s Springfield and Lincoln was aware of its existence.

As an adjunct to slavery, a system of voluntary or indentured servitude flourished in Springfield both prior to and after Lincoln's arrival. The system was legally permitted by the "Black Laws" adopted by Illinois' first legislature in 1819, and existed until February 7, 1865. Legally, an indenture is a contract. Indentured servitude was evidenced by a written contract between two persons providing that one person was to perform services for the other person for a given period of time. "Voluntary or indentured servitude" became a euphemism for Illinois slavery and it is often difficult to distinguish between the status of a Negro characterized as a slave and one characterized as an indentured servant.

Many of Lincoln's Springfield friends and acquaintances, including his in-laws, the Edwards and Todds, participated in the indenture system. This author has found seven Springfield written contracts of service indentures dated during the period from 1835-1845. The earliest, twenty-six-year-old Ninian Edwards, then a new resident of Springfield, and Hepsey, an eleven-year-old mulatto orphan girl. The terms of Hepsey's indenture were typical, providing that she was " learn the art and mystery of domestic housewifery and serve Edwards until the age of eighteen." In turn, Edwards was to provide Hepsey with sufficient meat, drink, washing, lodging, and apparel suitable and proper for such an apprentice, and needful medical attention. He was to "cause her to read" and, at the end of her term, he was to give her a new Bible and two new suits of clothes suitable and proper for summer and winter wear.

Hepsey’s indenture was in force on the evening of November 4, 1842, when Reverend Charles Dresser performed the marriage of Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln in the Edwards' home at the southwest corner of Charles and Second streets. Hepsey was probably present in the household at the time of their marriage.

Dr. John Todd, Mary Lincoln's uncle, had both a slave and an indentured servant. On April 18, 1836, he entered into an indenture with Elizabeth, an eight-year-old Negro girl, with the consent of her mother, Phoebe, one of Todd’s slaves.

In April of 1838, Reverend Charles Dresser moved to Springfield to become Rector of the Episcopal Church. Dresser was a New Englander born in Pomfret, Connecticut, in 1800. He graduated from Brown University in 1823.

A month after Dresser's arrival in Springfield, he entered into an indenture for the domestic labor of Rhoda Jane, a fifteen-year-old Negro girl. In the spring of 1839, he purchased a lot at Eighth and Jackson streets and constructed a house for his family. Rhoda probably lived in this house. Six years later, Lincoln purchased the house and moved his family there.

There are four other indentures in the period 1841 to 1843: Nine-year-old Sidney Mclntry, a mulatto girl, to Nathanial A. Rankin; eight-year-old Josephine to James F. Owings, Clerk of the United States District Court at Springfield; sixteen-year-old James to William Hickman, a justice of the peace who in 1860 lived at the northwest corner of Eighth and Cook streets, two blocks south of Lincoln's residence; and seventeen-year-old Elizabeth Jones to Robert Irwin, Lincoln's banker.

Although these indentures are interesting, they provide no insight on how indentured servants were treated by their masters. One can glimpse Springfield's mid-Nineteenth-Century community standard for acceptable discipline of Negro servants, however, from an entry in the May 1843 Session minutes of the First Presbyterian Church, Mary Lincoln's church.

The Session considered the case of church member Dorothea Grant, a young, single mother or widow with two young children. Dorothea was cited for "Unchristian conduct in the treatment of a colored girl bound to her." She had whipped the girl with a cowhide.

Dorothea defended her conduct by explaining that:
"...She had been in the habit of correcting the girl when she thought her conduct required it, and did not think that she was correcting her any more severely than she had done at other times; she was not aware at the time that any marks were caused on her body by this whipping & can account for it only from its being done with a different instrument from what she had formerly used." (The instrument formerly used is not revealed.)
The Session committee reported that Dorothea "acknowledged that the whipping was too severe and not accompanied by that mercy which the Christian should exercise, and she was sincerely sorry for the reproach she had brought in the church." The Session meeting concluded with prayer.

The second example of ecclesiastical discipline is that imposed by the Second Presbyterian Church, sometimes called the abolitionist church. That church dealt severely with its members who purchased or dealt in "human beings," as evidenced by the 1843 ex-communication of member George Day for such activity.

In addition to slaves and indentured servants, there were a number of free Negroes living in the homes of Springfield white families where they acted as servants. Edward D. Baker, Richard F. Barrett, Jacob Bunn, William Butler, John Calhoun, Levi Davis, Benjamin Edwards, William Grimsley, Virgil Hickox, Lawrason Levering, John A. McClernand, Edmund Roberts, David Spear, and Samuel H. Treat all had Negro servants living in their homes.

The evidence is clear. The 1830 and 1840 census slave entries, the indentures, and the ecclesiastical discipline of church members substantiate that slavery and indentured servitude existed in Lincoln's Springfield.

The third myth is that the Lincoln of 1860 knew little of Negro life. This assertion was made by Benjamin Quarles in his 1962 book, Lincoln and the Negro. Quarles was the first historian to attempt to assess Lincoln's personal relationship with Negroes, but his conclusions about Lincoln's relationship with Springfield's Negroes were flawed. After making a cursory review of Lincoln's twenty-four Springfield years and briefly noting his relationships with Negroes, Quarles concluded that:
"The Lincoln of 1860 knew the Negro of dialect story, minstrel stage, and sea chantey' and did not have a "rounded knowledge of the colored people." Lincoln "knew little of Negro life" or "John Doe, colored."
Quarles' observations could lead one to incorrectly conclude that either Springfield's Negroes had little to do with Lincoln or that they were not representative of Negroes elsewhere in America the amorphous John Doe, colored. There is little, if any, evidence to support either conclusion.

As pointed out earlier, some of Lincoln's closest associates possessed Negro slaves and indentured servants. It is reasonable to conclude that Lincoln observed, talked to, and knew the slaves and indentured servants of Ninian Edwards, the Negro slaves of Dr. John Todd, the indentured servants of Reverend Dresser and Robert lrwin, and the servants in the homes of Edward D. Baker (for whom the Lincoln's named their second son, Edward Wallace), and William Butler. The Lincoln household itself was served by Negroes. Two Negro women "Aunt" Ruth Stanton and Maria Vance worked in the Lincoln home. Maria, or "Aunt Maria" as she was called, served as cook, laundress, and maid for the Lincolns from 1850 to 1860, a longer period than any other servant who was known to have been employed by the Lincolns either in Springfield or Washington.

By late Twentieth-Century standards, the Lincolns lived in an integrated neighborhood. In 1860, at least twenty-one Negroes, about 10 percent of Springfield's Negro population, lived within a three-block radius of the Lincoln home.

Jameson Jenkins, a fifty-year-old North Carolina native who drove Lincolns carriage from the Chenery House to the Great Western Railroad Station when Lincoln left Springfield for Washington, was a neighbor, along with his family of two, and boarders Aunt Jane Pelham, a seventy-five-year-old I mulatto washerwoman, and Quintan Watkins.

John Jackson, a fifty-two-year-old white-washer and Virginia native, his wife Jenny, and their five children, as well as a lady named Diana Tyler, was also Lincoln's neighbor. On February 13, 1854, Jenny was received into membership in the First Presbyterian Church Mary Lincoln's church. David King, a twenty-six-year-old Virginia native, and his family of five were also neighbors of the Lincoln family.

Three Negro servant women lived in the homes of their employers within three blocks of the Lincoln home. Lucy Butcher, a twenty-six-year-old Virginia native, was a servant in at the residence of Issac A. Hawley. Rebecca Smith, an eighteen-year-old mulatto, was a servant at the Jacob Bunn residence. Charlotte Sims was a servant at the John A. McClernand residence.

Lincoln certainly knew of the day-to-day life of Springfield slaves, indentured servants, and free Negroes. His experiences and knowledge of Springfield Negroes were much broader than Quarles' conclusions.

A corollary to the third myth is that Lincoln's observations of Negroes while visiting friends and relatives in Kentucky and while residing at the White House were more significant than his observations of and relationships with Springfield's Negroes during his residency in the capital city.

Quarles found particular importance in Lincoln's two visits to Kentucky, one of the twenty-one days in August of 1841 at the Farmington plantation of his most intimate friend, Joshua F. Speed; and a second of about twenty-three days in November of 1847 to Mary's family, the Todds, in Lexington. Quarles speculated that Lincoln viewed the slave pens at Lexington and asserted that Lincoln was served by Negro servants at the Speed plantation and saw slavery in operation. Quarles further speculated that it is possible the Speeds assigned a slave to Lincoln for his personal needs.

Lincoln spent a total of forty-four days in making these Kentucky visits. In contrast, there are 8,698 days in Lincoln's Springfield years. Quarles, however, made little mention of them and nothing of the presence of either slaves or indentured servants in Springfield. He speculated not at all about Lincoln's relationship with Springfield Negroes, who were certainly more impressionable on Lincoln than the slaves he observed hypothetically in Kentucky.

The fourth myth is that Springfield Negroes were menials and servants incapable of activism on issues of racial justice. David Donald's Lincoln, published in 1995, made this claim:

"Of nearly 5,000 inhabitants of Springfield in 1850, only 171 were Negroes, most of whom labored in menial or domestic occupations. These were not people who could speak out boldly to say that they were as American as any whites, that they had no African roots and that they did not want to leave the United States."

There are at least three examples of Springfield Negro activism that contradict Donald's passive characterization of Springfield Negroes. The first is that of Springfield Negroes annually celebrating the anniversary of the 1834 emancipation of 800,000 slaves in the British West Indies. One such celebration was held on August 2, 1858, and the Springfield Journal reported that "the colored people of our city...celebrated the twenty-fourth anniversary of the British West Indies emancipation. They formed a procession and with music and banners, marched through the principal streets. Then they proceeded to Kelly s Grove, where they had a number of speeches."

Lincoln was present in Springfield on the date of this celebration.

The following year on August 1st, a Monday and presumably a workday, the Journal reported that "They [Springfield Negroes] went out to the Fairground, where speeches were delivered," and P. L. Donnegan spoke on "West India Emancipation," and Reverend Myers spoke on "Sabbath Schools."

"After this audience was dismissed till after refreshment. It was amusing to see everyone take their baskets and retire on the bluegrass, to partake their picnic dinner. After which the audience was called on to rally around the stand to hear more speeches… A young man from Belleville, John W. Menard, Jr. came to the stand. His voice is very strong and his manner impressive. Subject 'American Slavery," which he painted in its darkest hues, and gave able remarks in defense of Liberty and equality. His speech was truly the best of the day; after which all retired with hearty cheers for Menard, Fred [Erick] Douglass, and others."

Lincoln was present in Springfield on this date.

The second example is that of thirty-five-year-old Springfield barber and Baptist elder Samuel S. Ball, a Negro who, in 1848, traveled to the African Republic of Liberia. Upon his return, Ball made a written report of the country's advantages as a place for Negroes to relocate. The plan of relocation, known as colonization, was considered a possible solution to the racism and legal discrimination experienced by Illinois Negroes.

Ball's adventure began in August 1847, when he attended the annual meeting of the Colored Baptist Association in Madison County, Illinois. The Association reviewed reports on the "condition of the Republic of Liberia favorable to us in America" and resolved to "...send Elder S.S. Ball to Liberia, as an agent to inquire into the conditions of the aforesaid country, and to report to this Association on his return, provided means can be raised and procured to defray his expenses."

Ball accepted the mission and in preparation for his visit to Liberia obtained a letter of introduction from Illinois Governor August C. French, a supporter of the colonization movement, as was Lincoln at one time. Governor French's letter stated that he had personally known Mr. Ball for some time and regarded him to be a man of strictest integrity and veracity and "worthy of the encouragement and confidence of all friends of colonization."

Ball's April 11, 1848 departure from Baltimore for Liberia was reported by the Springfield Journal: "S. S. Ball, a very respectable colored man, late of this city, left Baltimore in a schooner on the April 11th for Liberia, for the purposes of examining that country as an asylum for free Negroes."

Ball arrived in Liberia on May 16, 1848. By August 24, 1848, he had returned to America and his homecoming appearance before the annual meeting of the Colored Baptist Association was reported as follows:

"Friday morning, August 25, intelligence being brought to the Association of the arrival... of Elder Samuel S. Ball, our missionary to Africa, whereupon the Association immediately adjourned to receive him... and conduct him to the preaching stand... Elder Ball responded with much feeling, after which in the shaking of hands, many tears were shed for joy, and praises were offered to God for his kind providence. Saturday at 3 p.m. was appointed for Elder Ball to make his report to the Association... And after hearing it, it was ordered printed, and it came out in pamphlet form and was sold to defray expenses and to remunerate Elder Ball for his services in the trip. Elder Ball exhibited numerous African curiosities."

Ball's report was published in a thirteen-page pamphlet entitled Liberia, The Condition and Prospects of that Republic; Made from Actual Observation. The report is well organized and well-written, describing the climate, geography, government, agriculture, and religion of Liberia. One cannot read Ball's report without concluding that he was a literate and sophisticated observer entitled to more than the patronizing characterization of "servant" or "menial." At the age of thirty-five, this Virginia-born Negro left his young family and 3,912 fellow Springfield residents and ventured across the Atlantic to an unknown country for the purpose of determining if it would be suitable for settlement by Negroes. He was obviously disturbed by the condition of Negro life and concluded there might be a better life elsewhere. He took affirmative steps to investigate one alternative.

Back in Springfield, Ball went about his daily life, which included earning a living as a barber, cleaner, and bath-room operator a Springfield niche for Negro males discovered by Ball and his business competitor, William Fleurville. Ball's business was located on the south side of the square and in close proximity to Lincoln's law office at Sixth and Adams streets. During the period 1849 through 1851, the Springfield Illinois State Journal printed a number of advertisements for Ball's barbershop. One such advertisement on March 28, 1849, stated this his shop would be open at all times from Monday morning until Saturday night and would have on hand "Ball's celebrated Restorative, so famous for the restoration of hair, and to prevent."

Ball continued to advocate colonization. In 1851, he spoke at Springfield and St. Louis, where he declared: "I am the warm friend and enthusiastic admirer of Liberia." He described Liberia as "the brightest spot on this earth to the colored man. Liberia not only protects the colored man in the enjoyment of equal rights, but... its institutions fostered merit, developed the moral and intellectual faculties of its citizens and produced great men."

That same year. Ball drew up a bill for the Illinois State Legislature proposing that the state provide financial support to free Illinois Negroes wishing to migrate to Liberia. The Springfield Journal supported Ball's efforts.

On September 16, 1852, at age forty-two, Ball died of typhoid fever. He left a widow and six children, and real estate valued at $1,018.59.

Not all Springfield Negroes favored Ball's colonization efforts. In fact, Ball's opinion was probably in the minority among his fellow Springfield Negroes. On February 12, 1858, Lincoln's forty-ninth birthday, the "colored citizens of Springfield" held a public meeting to protest the Dred Scott Decision and to express opposition to the colonization movement.

The meeting was prompted by the Illinois State Colonization Society's request of the State Legislature for money to assist in the resettlement of Negroes to Africa and the representation that "some of the most intelligent and enterprising of the people of color in the State of Illinois desire the assistance of the Colonization Society, to enable them to remove to Liberia or some other part of Africa."

Landen C. Coleman, a twenty-eight-year-old Springfield Negro shoemaker, acted as chairman of the meeting that, by its existence and adoption of a Forman resolution, contradicts Donald's assertion that Springfield Negroes "...were not people who could speak out boldly to say that they were as American as any whites, that they had no African roots, and that they did not want to leave the United States." While the entire resolution deserves study, in the interest of space I will quote only a portion:

“After careful inquiry, we have been unable to ascertain that any intelligent man of color either desires to Africa or requires aid for such an enterprise.

"We have no desire to exchange the broad prairies, fertile soil, healthful climate, and Christian civilization of Illinois, for the dangerous navigation of the wide ocean, the tangled forests, savage beasts, heathen people, and miasmatic shores of Africa.

"We believe that the operations of the Colonization Society is calculated to excite prejudices against us and to impel ignorant or ill-disposed persons to take measures for our expulsion from the land of our nativity, from our country and from our homes.

"We do for ourselves, and in behalf of our colored brethren throughout the United States, most earnestly protest against the recent decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Dred Scott, not only because... Scott and his family were by that decision most unjustly doomed to slavery, but also because the... decision misrepresents the greater charter of American liberty, the Declaration of Independence, and the spirit of the American people, as well as the Constitution of the United States.

"We take the Declaration as the Gospel of freedom; we believe in its great truth, 'that all men are created equal, endowed with certain inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.' We know ourselves to be men, and we claim our rights as such under this '...The declaration' of the Old Thirteen [colonies]. We also claim the right of citizenship in this, the country of our birth. We were born here, and where we desire to die and to be buried. We are not African. The best blood of Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, and other State, where our brethren are still held in bondage by their brothers, flows in our veins. We are not, therefore, aliens, either in blood or in race, to the people of the country in which we were born. Why then should we be disenfranchised and denied the rights of citizenship in the north, and those of human nature itself in the south?"

There is no hard evidence to link Lincoln to these three examples of Springfield's Negro activism. But Lincoln's Springfield was a small town. Did these activities influence Lincoln? If he was influenced by brief glimpses of slavery on visits to Kentucky, as Quarles asserted, then without question the influences of Springfield s Negro population engaged in the daily routine of life during Lincoln's residency were even more significant.

In reaching conclusions about Negroes in Lincoln's Springfield, contemporary Lincoln historians have largely relied upon secondary sources and have thereby unknowingly acquiesced in the omissions and prejudices of the past. Each generation of Lincoln historians has repeated and thereby perpetuated the myth giving us an incomplete picture of Lincoln's Springfield.

It is time to put these myths aside. Historians should take a fresh look at Lincoln, and reconsider some equally entrenched views about the origins, nature, and evolution of his mature views on race, slavery, colonization, abolitionism, emancipation, and Negro civil rights. Only then will we have a true picture of the significance of Negroes as part of Lincoln's Springfield community.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.
Illinois State Library

[1] Ante-bellum: occurring or existing before the Civil War.

Tuesday, February 6, 2018

The History of the Hyperbolic Paraboloid Edens Theater in Northbrook, Illinois. (1963-1994)

This futuristic-looking classic 60s-era movie house was a long-time landmark in suburban Northbrook, visible along the Edens Expressway (for which the theater was named) and Lake-Cook Road, both of which ran past the Edens. It was designed by the Chicago-based firm of Perkins and Will.
Built-in 1963, and opening with “Divorce Italian Style”, the large Edens was inside a traditional movie theater, with a huge screen, complete with red curtains and a small stage area. The original color scheme was gold and off-white, with teak paneling. However, the Edens' exterior was its real stunner, looking like something out of a 1950s sci-fi movie. It was called the largest “hyperbolic paraboloid” building ever constructed when it opened. 
The theater’s concrete roof curved sharply upwards on either end, rising dramatically skyward at each point. Its walls, of corrugated concrete, were broken up by long, undulating swaths of glass, along the entrance areas. The main lobby, which was sunken and reached by sets of stairs, featured then ultra-modern “living room” furniture and artwork.
In 1969, a slightly smaller (and far more ordinary-looking) second auditorium was built adjacent to the original theater. The theater was renamed the Edens I & II. 
The once enormously popular Edens was shuttered by its last operator, Cineplex Odeon, in 1994, stating that the cost of refurbishing the aging twin was too prohibitive. The theater lacked a state-of-the-art sound and projection system and was razed by the end of 1994. 
When Star Wars was released on Wednesday, May 25, 1977 half of the people waiting in line were disappointed that the movie was sold out and they were turned away. A friend and I waited over 2 hours that Saturday, the 27th, to get in to see Star Wars. We got in... and great seats, smack-dab in the middle of the theater too.
"The Life of a Beautiful Bird"

(1/5) Edens Theater  [runtime 12:11]

(2/5) Edens Theater  [runtime 11:06]

(3/5) Edens Theater [runtime 9:20]

(4/5) Edens Theater [runtime 14:15]

(5/5) Edens Theater [runtime 9:11]

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

James Ford, Leader of Ford's Ferry Gang - River Pirates.

James N. Ford (1775-1833), also known as James N. Ford, Sr. the "N" possibly for Neal, was an American civic leader and business owner in western Kentucky and southern Illinois in the late 1790s to mid-1830s
This is an early 19th century horse-powered ferry boat, the kind used by James Ford.
Ford was a powerful and scheming leader of a ruthless gang of outlaws, owned a ferry that crossed the Ohio River near Cave-in-Rock, Illinois from 1823 to 1833. "Ford's Ferry Gang" helped him acquire a fortune in land, money, slaves, and livestock by robbing and murdering travelers.
Ford was an Illinois associate of Isaiah L. Potts and the Potts Hill Gang, highway robbers, of the infamous Potts Tavern. Ford's Ferry Road was a ten-mile wooded trail from the ferry to Pott's Tavern, where weary settlers who had escaped Ford's gang were victims of the same fate at the hands of owner Bill Potts.

James Ford also had an association with illegal slaver trader and kidnapper of free blacks, John Hart Crenshaw, and may have taken part in the Illinois version of the Reverse Underground Railroad. At one point, they used the Cave-in-Rock as their headquarters, on the Illinois side of the lower Ohio River, which is approximately 85 miles below Evansville, Indiana.

The Ford and Potts era at Cave-in-Rock ended with the murder of Ford in 1833 by another gang member.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

Sunday, February 4, 2018

John Crenshaw's Hickory Hill Plantation "Old Slave House" on the Reverse Underground Railroad in Equality, Illinois.

In historical writing and analysis, PRESENTISM is the introduction of present-day ideas and perspectives into depictions or interpretations of the past. I believe presentism is a form of cultural bias, and it creates a distorted understanding of the subject matter. Reading modern notions of morality into the past is committing the error of presentism. I'm well aware that historical accounts are written by people and can be slanted, so I try my hardest to present articles that are fact based and well researched, without interjecting any of my personal opinions.


The Crenshaw House (also known as the Crenshaw Mansion, Hickory Hill or, most commonly, The Old Slave House) is a historic former residence located in Gallatin County, Village of Equality, Illinois. The house was constructed in the 1830s. It was the main residence of John Hart Crenshaw, his wife, and their five children.
Landowner and illegal slave trader John H. Crenshaw leased the state-owned salt works located at the Illinois Salines, two saline springs along the Saline River near Equality, Illinois that were important sources of salt since prehistory. Salt was vital to the early American frontier economy, both as a nutrient and as a means to preserve food.

Illinois was a free state, and the Illinois State Constitution bans slavery. However, the law permitted the use of slaves at the salt works since the labor was so arduous that no free men could be found to do it. As the lessee of the salt works, Crenshaw was one of a small minority of Illinois residents legally entitled to keep slaves, and Crenshaw became remarkably wealthy. At one point, Crenshaw's taxes amounted to one-seventh of the revenue of the entire state. Crenshaw owned thousands of acres of land, in addition to the 30,000 acres he leased from the state, and more than 700 slaves. In 1838, Crenshaw and his brother Abraham used this wealth to build the mansion on Hickory Hill in Equality, a few miles from the salt works near the town of Junction.

In September 1840, Abraham Lincoln, a state representative, was in Gallatin County for over a week attending debates in Shawneetown and Equality. The Crenshaws hosted a ball in honor of the debates.

The ball was held on the second floor. The second floor of the house was designed to be easily converted into a ballroom because the hall and two of the rooms were made from moveable partitions particularly for such events. 

Mr. Lincoln along with other male guests spent the night in the Southeast bedroom of the Crenshaw House. The furniture in the room consisted of one bed and two chairs. Lincoln either slept on the bed, which was shorter than he was, or he could have spread out over the two chairs, or possibly slept on the floor.
The Crenshaw House was a "station" on the Reverse Underground Railroad that transported escaped slaves and kidnapped free blacks back to servitude in slave states. The home’s third floor attic contains 12 rooms long believed to be where Crenshaw operated a secret slave jail for kidnapped free black and captured runaway slaves.
In 2004, the National Park Service named the mansion as a "station" on the Reverse Underground Railroad to acknowledge Crenshaw's practice of kidnapping free blacks in Illinois and selling them to buyers from Slave States.


The key to proving whether blacks were held against their will on the third floor of the Old Slave House lies in discovering the character of the home's original owner, John Hart Crenshaw. Rediscovered documents not only show that Crenshaw was a slave-holder of indentured servants, but was at least twice indicted as a kidnapper of free blacks. In effect, Crenshaw was a conductor of an Underground Railroad that operated in reverse, from north to south, from freedom to slavery.

According to the Complete History of Illinois published in 1874, "the crime of seizing free blacks, running them south and selling them into slavery from this State, for a long time was quite common. Portions of southern Illinois for many years afforded a safe retreat to those kidnapping outlaws. We cannot cite the numerous cases of kidnapping." The book also tells how it was done. "In the majority of cases the poor ignorant blacks, by fraud and deceit, were inveigled (tricked) into a trip south on a flat boat, or other errand, and at some pre-arranged point on the river, they would be turned over to confederates, forcibly and rapidly taken to the interior and there sold into slavery... Another mode was to seize a black and forcibly convey him to a rendezvous either on the Ohio or Mississippi river, but not out of the State, where a confederate would appear and carry him beyond."

A letter in the Henry Eddy manuscript collection tells how John Forrester stole one woman from Hamilton County and took her to Union County, Kentucky. In it, the letter writer relates the woman's story of being taken to that state and moved from "house to house" in an attempt to keep her hidden. This implies an organized network of kidnappers, an effort apparently more organized than the legitmate Underground Railway. The letter also proves that the victims were held in homes. In Gallatin County, legend identifies at least two such houses: Crenshaw's Hickory Hill plantation home and a mansion on Sandy Ridge south of Shawneetown, Illinois. In the second house the victims were kept in cells in the basement and likely chained to large iron rings that were set into the basement walls in each cell.
Although Illinois was a free state, slavery was legal in two forms. Not until 1846 did the Illinois Supreme Court finally rule that all slavery in the state must end. Illinois' first constitution approved by Congress in 1818, allowed the leasing of slaves for the salt works near Equality, Illinois. It also kept intact the form of slavery known as indentured servitude. Slavery in Illinois didn't end until just 15 years before the Civil War.

The main body of evidence discovered about Crenshaw dealt with the 1842 kidnapping of Maria Adams and her children. The case has been studied before, but only now do we know the victims' names. Another case is an 1825 case where Crenshaw was one of three defendents. We don't know what the outcome was on this one, let alone who the victims were. The Adams case is covered by both a newspaper editorial immediately following the trial and letters from legislators to the governor four years later. The writings tell how Crenshaw kidnapped the family as charged and sold them to a slave trader named Lewis Kuykendall. Crenshaw was acquitted of that crime by a Gallatin County jury in 1842, but kidnapping was a hard crime to prove. The prosecutor, Willis Allen of Marion, Illinois had to prove that the victims had been taken out of state. Although it was known that Crenshaw kidnapped Maria and her children, Allen could not prove that they had left the state. Thus, the jury could do nothing but acquit Crenshaw and Kuykendall.

George Flower, a leader of the English Settlement in Edwards County, wrote about how hard it was to legally find a kidnapper guilty. He compared it to finding a common thief guilty. At the time, a thief could be whipped, but a kidnapper simply fined. "A kidnapper, who would steal a free man, and plunge him and his posterity into everlasting slavery, could not be brought to trial. A murderer was sure to escape. But the poor creature who had not stolen to the value of a dime, was thus unmercifully dealt with."

The kidnapping of free blacks had long been a problem in Illinois. The Black Code of 1819 allowed a fine of $1,000 to be levied on behalf of the victim, but did not provide for any criminal convictions. Coupled with the fact that blacks could not testify in court against a white man, the two made any legal remedy almost useless. Only in a few counties where the pro-slavery sentiment wasn't so strong did free blacks win cases against white kidnappers. Usually it was for the crime of trespass and only with the help of friendly whites did they convince juries.

An early reference to the problem of kidnapping came in 1822, during Gov. Edward Coles' inaugural address when he asked the legislature to look into the problem. That same message also showed Coles' hostility towards slavery and opened up a two-year battle between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in an effort to change the state constitution. In August 1824, Illinois residents voted against holding a constitutional convention and thus slavery. However, the pro-slavery question passed in the southern counties with Gallatin County being the strongest for a convention.

During this time Crenshaw operated a salt well supplying water to the salt works of Guard, Choisser & Company in addition to his own. In 1825, Crenshaw, John Forrester and Preston W. Davis were indicted for kidnapping. We know because Crenshaw sued Davis four years later to get him to pay his part of the defense attorney's fees. However no more is known. In 1827 or 1828, the Illinois Spectator newspaper of Edwardsville may have referred to the trial because they hint at Crenshaw's involvement in kidnapping. The newspaper reference comes as a footnote in Norman Dwight Harris' 1904 book"The History of Negro Servitude in Illinois and of Slavery Agitation in that State; 1719-1864, (in my Digital Research Library of Illinois History®). The book paraphrases from the newspaper a list of three men from Illinoistown (what's now East St. Louis) as being kidnappers. It also mentioned a "prominent resident of Shawneetown, Mr. John C" as being a kidnapper. The footnote also indicated that "Mr. John C" kept the slaves in a cave on the Wabash River near his home. There is no major cave on the Wabash in Gallatin County, but there is a major cave near Crenshaw's home and salt works along the Saline River. (It should also be noted that the Salines, although along the Saline River, were often described as being along the Ohio River near the mouth of the Wabash.) Equality Cave on Cave Hill is just a few miles from both the salt works, and the land where Crenshaw lived as a teen.

In 1828, a black woman by the name of Lucinda was kidnapped and taken to Kentucky. She identified her attacker as "John Granger." She also mentioned William and Abraham Granger. Henry Eddy did not get the letter until 1843. Yet, when he wrote the legal brief in the Davis vs. Crenshaw case in 1829, he first wrote "John Granger." He drew a line across "Granger" and then wrote "Crenshaw." Since Abraham and William are two of John Crenshaw's brothers, was John Crenshaw also known as John Granger? Also, Eddy was the state's attorney that prosecuted Crenshaw in 1825.

Another kidnapping of that time showed the type of harrassment that existed against free blacks. The Shawneetown newspaper carried an item July 27, 1829, about the kidnapping of Maria, an 8-year-old. She had been freed the year before by the heirs of John McAlister of Montgomery County, Tennessee. Because freed slaves could not remain in that state, 62 of the slaves were brought to Illinois and freed. Prior to the kidnapping someone stole two horses from the family preventing them from making a crop. Harassment of free blacks continued to worsen. To the north in the English Settlement, Flower organized passage and permission for 30 free blacks to move to Haiti. At that time Haiti was the only independent black country in the Western Hemisphere.
By 1830, Crenshaw's wealth had increased and he was owner of a steam mill near Equality, Illinois and three of the nine salt works in the area. During the 1830s, the harassment of blacks increased to include murdering whites who interfered. Benjamin Hardin died in 1834 or 1835. Although killed by a black who was hired by another black, it was strongly believed that a white businessman was behind the murder. Sometime in late 1835 or early 1836, James Lynch was on his way from Shawneetown to Equality to file emancipation papers for a family slave when he disappeared. He had tried to file them earlier but had been discouraged because he was not yet 21 years old.
While kidnapping continued to be a growing problem throughout Southern Illinois, Crenshaw's wealth increased. In 1833, he first hired the contractor, a German, to start on Hickory Hill Plantation, the three-story home locals later knew as the Old Slave House. During this time southeast Illinois was plagued by more than kidnappers. The region was home to a sizable criminal element that included counterfeiters and highwaymen. The leaders of these groups were some of the same outlaws that had been at Cave-in-Rock at the turn of the century. Gov. Thomas Ford in his history of Illinois described the outlaws as "an ancient colony of horse-thieves, counterfeiters and robbers."

The leader, or one of the main leaders, was James Ford of Ford's Ferry fame. A minor leader when the outlaws were still based in Cave-in-Rock prior to 1806, he was still leading his group when he was assassinated by the Regulators in 1833. Ford lived at times on Hurricane Island opposite Elizabethtown, Illinois, and at times at his plantation in Livingston County, Kentucky. Because Ford was a civic leader, even sheriff at one time, he either remained above suspicion or beyond the reach of the law. On the Illinois side in Hardin County, the legendary outlaw Billy Potts was the real-life Isaiah Potts, a justice-of-the-peace.

In Pope County, known kidnapper Caleb Slankard operated a gang that abducted blacks. His boss, or partner, at one time was William H. Vaughn, a Bay City storekeeper. Vaughn was believed to have been a pirate on the Gulf Coast before moving to his storeboat in the Ohio River. He was tied to at least two kidnappings involving a total of seven children. After he testified at a grand jury that Slankard and others had actually done the abduction, he died from an unexpected seizure. It was believed someone poisoned his whiskey.

As Crenshaw grew richer his reputation became mixed. The children of one of Crenshaw's brothers claimed that he cheated his nieces and nephews out of their share of their father's estate. The Illinois Republican newspaper in Shawneetown described public attitude toward Crenshaw this way in March 1842, "although he is a member of the church, and may be considered a saint by those who are in the church, is not considered very much of a saint by those who are out of the church" (italics are from the original).

Not until the 1842 Maria Adams case do we start getting details about the kidnappings. Crenshaw purchased the indenture contracts for Maria Adams and her husband Charles in late 1829 or early 1830. He purchased the contracts from Col. A. G. S. Wight who was moving to Galena. Also included in the sale was a son named Nelson, a daughter named Ellen, and possibly some younger children. In October 1829, Maria gave birth to another daughter, Nancy Jane. Charles had less time on his contract and filed his freedom papers on April 29, 1834.

Maria was born in 1790. She was indentured in Randolph County, Illinois, on July 14, 1810, for 45 years, when she was 15 years old. Charles was born about 1794. In late 1813 or early 1814, he moved from Maryland to Illinois with his owners. On March 19, 1814, he was indentured to Dr. Conrad Will, who had moved to the Big Muddy River the year before. Charles was lucky and his indenture was only for 20 years. Sometime during the next four years, Illinois Territorial Gov. Ninian Edwards purchased Charles' contract. During this time Charles also married Maria. Possibly as a wedding present, on March 6, 1818, Edwards filed a statement in Randolph County Court at Kaskaskia pledging that he would let Maria go free when Charles' contract expired.

Ellen Adams was born in 1823. Nelson is believed to have been born earlier, but definitely prior to 1825. That year Edwards was talking with Col. Wight in Vandalia and mentioned that he was thinking about selling them. Later that summer, Wight sent an agent to Edwards to arrange purchase of Charles and Maria. Either the parents, the children, or both, threw such a fit over being separated that Edwards agreed to send the children with the agent for a short time. Edwards spent the next four years writing letters to Wight trying to get the children back or at get least some type of payment for them. Maria cooked for Edwards nearly eight years and at least started as a cook with Wight. She probably continued as a cook in Crenshaw's employ. After Charles received his freedom, Crenshaw refused to follow Edwards' statement filed in Randolph County since the governor never filed an amended indenture with the court. That left Maria still in the service of Crenshaw. Nelson also received his freedom sometime during the 1830s, or at least by 1842. By that year, Ellen was also still working as an indentured servant, but likely in Michael K. Lawler's household where she was freed in 1845. Crenshaw likely gave Ellen to his daughter and son-in-law Lawler as a wedding present in 1837.

Early in 1842, Crenshaw kidnapped Maria and her children from their home while Charles and Nelson were away. According to the Illinois Republican newspaper in Shawneetown, Crenshaw kept them hidden for several days until Kuykendall arrived for them in the middle of the night. In an editorial, Publisher Samuel D. Marshall wrote that the "aged mother" and her children were handcuffed or tied, then placed into a wagon and driven out of the state by Kuykendall. Because the state's attorney could not prove what everyone knew, Crenshaw and Kuykendall were acquitted.

Shawneetown attorney Henry Eddy fleshed out Marshall's story with more details in an 1846 letter to Gov. Ford. After the kidnapping, Nelson Adams and another black man named Fox stopped Crenshaw on the road as he was coming back from the iron works in Hardin County. With Fox holding a rifle, Nelson demanded to know where Crenshaw had taken his family. We don't know if they got an answer, but Crenshaw quickly had Nelson, Fox and Charles Adams, who wasn't even present, arrested and convicted of assault with the intent to murder. They were sentenced to either four or five years in the state penitentiary in Alton, Illinois.

After Ellen received her freedom from Lawler, she likely worked with sympathetic whites like Eddy to find her family. Eddy, Wight and the two sons of late Gov. Edwards, one of whom was a former attorney-general for the state, petitioned Gov. Ford to pardon the Adamses so they could help rescue their family. Both the letters and the pardon were dated Dec. 8, 1846, the last day of Ford's administration. In the letters, Eddy stated that Maria and the children were in Texas. Regrettably, we don't know if they were ever saved. The 1850 Census of Gallatin County shows only Charles Adams. He is listed as living with a white family at the time.

Two years after the Adams' kidnapping, a group of men kidnapped 10-year-old Peter White of Equality, Illinois and three other younger children, and sold him into slavery. Walter White, a nephew of Gen. Leonard White rescued the children. Although Walter was white and Peter was black, the two may have been related. Later census records show at least three Whites whose race were listed as mulatto.

The black White family was likely the freed slaves of the Whites that lived in Gallatin County. Southern Illinois historian G. W. Smith interviewed White in 1903, when he was 70. White was living in Equality at that time. Although Smith wrote that White provided him with a lot of information, Smith never told who kidnapped White and the other children. By 1934, when White's descendants were still living in Equality, James Lyle Sisk designed signs for the Old Slave House stating that Peter and the children were kept in a third floor cell for a time. Sisk, an uncle to the current owner George Sisk, was the long-time principal of Champaign's Franklin Junior High School.

In 1846, Crenshaw was involved in what was known as the Prather case. Martha Prather had moved from either South Carolina or Tennessee to Gallatin County in 1826. On Feb. 7, 1827, she signed emancipation papers for her 23 slaves and put up a $23,000 bond to the county. Some time later a group from Tennessee followed the slaves and tried to prosecute them as "fugitive runaways." Newton E. Wright and others filed a federal lawsuit. From the Eddy collection, there are summaries of the depositions filed by Eddy on behalf of the freed slaves. An eighth deposition, that of John Crenshaw, was mentioned but not summarized. From the letter, researchers can infer that Crenshaw was testifying on behalf of Wright, or may have even been a party to the lawsuit. The U.S. District Court ruled against Wright. Not much is known about Wright other than how he is described in the 1876 state history as a "shrewd bad man" living on Wolf Island "who had long been engaged in kidnapping."

Wolf Island was a 15,000 acre island in the Mississippi River. It was the fifth island south of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Early descriptions of the island dating back to 1808 tell of dense woods with a prairie on a hill in the center. Its owner at the time was a professional gambler named James Hunter.

Also in 1846, another Crenshaw was connected with a kidnapper. This time it was eldest daughter, Mary Hart Crenshaw, the wife of John E. Hall. On July 12, 1846, Mary held a "frolic" during the afternoon at her home and a dance that evening. According to her sister-in-law Ada, who was married to Crenshaw's eldest son William T. Crenshaw, one of the guests at the dance was "kidnapper Sands." John E. Hall served as the circuit clerk of Gallatin County from 1848 to 1856, and during his last year in office he assassinated in his office; shot in the back. The jury acquitted his killer, Robert C. Sloo, on the grounds of temporary emotional insanity.

Kidnapping continued in Southern Illinois up through the Civil War. At least one kidnapping took place near Marion in 1857, and kidnappers were named in Union County in 1859. Not until after the war did the practice stop. During the 1840s and 1850s, Crenshaw became more involved in farming his thousands of acres of land. He also diversified into other industries such as lumber, railroads, banks and distilling. As he grew older he likely gave up his secret life of crime. Quite possibly, he might have even become the "good Methodist" people claimed him to be.

The role of slavery played a much greater part of our Illinois history than what we like to admit. Very few sites remain today from that era. Crenshaw's Hickory Hill Plantation, which is known as the Old Slave House, is one of the few, if not the last, left.

Read my article, "The Institute of Slavery in Illinois."
Many people believe that Illinois was a free state, even before joining the Union in 1818. But both Indians and Negros were slaves or indentured servants beginning from the French colonial period and continuing during the American period, at least in five southern counties.

Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.
Some historical accounts by Jon Musgrave 


These records were found in the Gallatin County Clerk's office at the Courthouse in Shawneetown, Illinois in a very old book which is not indexed, but the pages are numbered. Fully one half of the slaves had not been residents of Illinois prior to their freedom, but were brought by their masters from Tennessee, South Carolina, etc. to be freed. Each record has been summarized. This is Deed Book "A" and begins in 1814.

NOTE: The records do not begin until page #27 in this book and the first one is not complete.

p.27) (Name not listed on this page) for cash and necessities of life for 40 years. HANNAH to Jepthah HARDIN. Wit: Jos. M. STREET.

p.28) 12/12/1815. PETE, Negro man about age 34 of Gallatin County, Territory of Illinois and Jepthah HARDIN. For boarding, clothing and necessities for natural lifetime or 50 years from date. Wit: Jos. M. STREET, Gallatin County Clerk

p.30-1) 3/4/1816. JENNY Negro woman about age 33, Gallatin County, Territory of Illinois, and Jepthah HARDIN for $400 and keep for 40 years. Wit: Jos. M. STREET.

p.32-3) 7/25/1815. WINNEY, Negro woman age about 35 years, Gallatin County, Terr. Ill. And William RILLEY for $300 and keep for 15 years from this date. Wit: Jos. M. STREET, Gallatin County Clerk.

p.34-5) 8/22/1818. DAN, Negro man about age 19, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory, and Cornelius LAFFERTY for $600 and keep, for 16 years from this date. Wit: Jos. M. STREET, Gallatin County Clerk.

p.35-6) 8/22/1818. JIM, a free Negro man age about 30 years of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory and Cornelius LAFFERTY for $500 and keep for 30 years from date. Wit: Jos. M. STREET, Gallatin County Clerk.

p.36-8) 8/22/1818. PHILLIS, a Negro girl about age 15 years, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory and John POSEY, for $1 and board, clothing, and maintenance for 60 years from this date. No witness. Phillis agrees to move any place in the U.S. and Territories of U.S.

p.38-9) 8/2/1818. WINNEY, free Negro girl age about 15 years of Gallatin County, Territory of Illinois and William BOWLES for $1 and board, clothing, maintenance and kind treatment for 25 years from date. Wit: Jos. M. STREET.

p.40-3) 8/18/1818. DICK, free man of color, age about 20, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory and John FORESTER, for $1 board, clothing, maintenance and kind treatment for 60 years from date. Wit: Jos. M. STREET.

p.43-7} 8/18/1818. LONDON, a free man of color, age about !6 years, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory and Joseph M. STREET for $1, board, clothing, maintenance and kind treatment for 60 years from date. Wit: John FORESTER.

p.47-50) 8/24/1818. REUBIN, a Negro man, age about 27 years, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory, and John POSEY for $1, board, lodging, clothing and maintenance for 50 years from date. Agrees to go with Posey anywhere. Wit: Jos. M. STREET.

p.50-4) 8/18/1818. PATSEY, a free Negro girl, age about 17 years, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory, and Joseph M. STREET, for $1, board, clothing, maintenance and good-kind treatment for natural life. Wit: John FORESTER.

p.54-5) 8-22-1818. JUDY, a free Negro woman, age 30, of Gallatin Co., Illinois Territory, and Moses M. RAWLINGS, for board, clothing, good and kind treatment for 40 years from this date. Not signed by Moses M. RAWLINGS. Wit: Jos. M. STREET.

p.68-9) 8/22/1818. DANIEL, a free Negro, age about 21 years, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory, for $660 in hand and agrees to serve Oliver C. VANLANDINGHAM or heirs for 40 years, binding in penalty of $1000. Wit: Joseph M. STREET, Clerk of Circuit Court, Gallatin County.

p.70-1) Indenture made 8/22/1818. LUCINDA, a Negro woman, age about 30 years, of Gallatin County, Illinois Territory, for sum of $350 in hand agrees to serve Oliver C. VANLANDINGHAM for 30 years. Wit: Joseph M. STREET, Clerk of Gallatin County. 


p.55-6) James DUNCAN of Logan County, KY discharges EDMOND (purchased of Major John ROBERTS of Culpeper Co., VA, and brought to KY by me) and his wife, PHILLIS, (belonging to my father's estate) from my services and the claims of my heirs, etc. Dated 20 Oct. 1819. Wit: Henry MAURY and J. M . DUNCAN. Recorded 1/3/1820 in Deed Book A, p. 69, Gallatin County, Illinois by Jos. M. STREET.

p.56-7) Joshua SCOTT (Clerk of Pope Co. Circuit Court), personally acquainted with Elizabeth CARTER now known as Elizabeth NORRINGTON, who lives near the Saline Saltworks since about 1800. She was called free by General John CALDWELL (with whom she came to Livingston Co., KY, and had as a husband, ABRAHAM, the property of CALDWELL). I further certify she held a headright of land in her name on Livingston Creek. Dated 7/27/1820. Signed by Joshua SCOTT and recorded 7/29/1820.

The above Elizabeth NORRINGTON, formerly Elizabeth CARTER, enters her son, a free man of color, age about 21 years called Samuel CALDWELL in compliance of Act of General Assembly as of March 30, 1819.

p.57-9) Bethaniah CREASY of Butler Co., KY, do free YORK, my black man from my service and claims of my heirs. Dated 8/4/1818. Wit: William DAVIS, James COHSON, and Temple DAVIS. State of KY, Butler Co., September County Court. Proven the emancipation of said YORK. Signed by Robert MORRISON, Clerk of Court, and dated 9/14/1818. Recorded in Gallatin Co., IL on 8/8/1820 (age given about 32 or 33 years) by Joseph M. STREET.

p.59-60) JOEL and wife Mary DAVIS, of Butler Co., KY, in consideration of $600 from SAMPSON (their slave) do emancipate and liberate SAMPSON from slavery and claims of their heirs. Dated 1/7/1818. Test: Rob. MORRISON and Daniel WILSON. Proven in Court 1/12/1818, signed by Robert MORRISON. Recorded in Gallatin County, IL on 7/30/1821 by J. M. STREET. (Handed in by SAMPSON about 5'11" tall and age 28.)

p.60-1) Milledgeville, GA, Baldwin Co., Feb. 1, 1819. "We do hereby certify that we have known a free man of color by the name of OBEDIAH MIFLIN several years as a boat hand and since that time he had conducted himself honestly and faithfully to his work. Signed: William BARROW, Jacob BARROW, Thos. B. STUBBS, Thompson BIRD, William H. CRENSHAW, and Henry DARNELL." Georgia, Baldwin County: duly recorded in the clerk's office of the Superior Court Book "F" Folio 267 and 268 this 2nd day of Feb. 1819. Signed by Thomas H. KEMAN, Clerk.

State of Tennessee, Knox Co.: The foregoing certificate is recorded and in the clerk' s office of the County Court of Knox Co., and truly copied therefrom. Given under my hand the 10th day of Aug. 1819. Signed: Wm. SWAN, Clerk.

State of Kentucky, Fayette County: Dec. 8, 1819 the foregoing certificate was this day produced to me, the clerk of said County, and the same with the names thereto signed is truly recorded in my office . Signed: J. C. RODES, Clerk Fayette County. Recorded in Book "F", p. 99. Examined att. J. C. RODES, Clerk.

Recorded in my office in Evansville, Indiana in Book "A", p. 161 this 11th day May 1820 and signed J. ZIMMERMAN, DRVC.

The foregoing was produced to me in my office on the 1st day March 1821 by a man of color named OBEDIAH MIFLIN, light colored Negro about 27 or 28 years of age , about 5'4" high, well set. To be entered of record agreeably to law. Signed Jos. M. STREET, Clerk Circuit Court.

p.61) Arthur J. JONES, a free man of color plans to travel in the West and requested a statement as to character, etc . He was certified of good character, having lived on Frontier during last war (1812) and suffered considerably from Indians. Dated 31 Jan. 1819. Signed Ed. N. CULLOW, J.P., Palestine, State of Illinois.

p.62) State of Illinois , Gallatin County, Samuel R. CAMPBELL of Mullenburg, KY, with CORNELIUS, a colored man who was willed to him by his father William CAMPBELL, to be freed at age 30 years. CORNELIUS reached the age of 30 years on the 10th of this month and is now free. Signed: Samuel R. CAMPBELL and sworn and subscribed before me this 3 day of April, 1821. Signed: John MARSHALL, J. P. Gallatin County, Illinois.

p.63-4) State of Illinois , Gallatin County. Samuel R. CAMPBELL stated that JACOB, a man of color received by last will and testament of Wm. CAMPBELL, to receive his freedom at age of 30 years of Muhlenburg Co., KY. He will soon be age 30 and be entitled to his freedom. Signed: Sam'l R. CAMPBELL and sworn and subscribed before me this 30th day of April 1821. Signed: Jno. MARSHALL, J.P. Recorded 5/10/1821 by J.M. STREET.

p.64-5) I, SAMUEL (SAM) FORD, an African born freeman of color of Gallatin Co., IL, did purchase of Ephraim HUBBARD of Shawneetown and State of Illinois a woman of color named NELLY, age about 40 years . She is now free. Signed by Samuel FORD. Sworn before me Jan. 8 , 1825, signed J.M. STREET.

Samuel FORD appeared manumitting NELLY, woman of color . Dated 1/12/1825. Signed Thos. F. VAUGHT, JP. We, the undersigned, certify that Sam FORD did purchase NELLY (his wife) from E. HUBBARD, and they have lived as man and wife in a reputable, honest, prudent and industrious manner. Signed: M.L. DAVEWORT, JP; Jno. MARSHALL, J.P.

p.72) State of Illinois, County of Gallatin. I, Thomas L. POSEY, Clerk of County Commissioners, certify that JOHN CHOSIER has entered this date a Negro child named MARY, born of an indentured woman named NANCY, in conformance with the Section of the State, #6 of the constitution. Dated April 27, 1827. Thomas L. POSEY, Clerk.

p.72-3) I, Martha PRATER of Gallatin County, Illinois bind myself for $23,000. penal sum for surety of 23 emancipated slaves to the County Commissioners. Wit: H. EDDY, and D. VINYARD. Signed by X Martha PROCTOR. Commissioners: Charles MICK, John SHEARER and Andrew SLACK or their successors.

p.73-5) I, Martha PRATER of Gallatin County, Illinois, to carry out the will of my late husband, Price PRATER of the State of South Carolina and of my own will do emancipate the following Negro slaves:

LUCY, about 35 years of age and her 9 children: (1) CUBA, about age 20 years, (2) MALINDA, about age 19 years, (3) NOAH, about age 16 years, (4) POLLY, about age 14 years, (5) PATSY, about age 12 years, (6) LIZZA, about age 10 years, (7) HARRIET, age about 7 years, (8) DOCIA, age about 5 years, and (9) LUCINDA, age about 2 years.

REBECCA, about age 33 years and her 7 children: (1) BETSY, about age 15 years, (2) ANNA, about age 13 years, (3) HERCULES, age about 13 years, (4) MARTHA, about age 9 years, (5) ELIAS, about age 7 years, (6) ZACHARIAH, about age 5 years, and (7) BECCA, about age 1 year. 

JACK (or JOHN) about age 28 years and daughter ELSY ANN, age about 1 year: JESSEE, age about 21 years, JOHNSON, age about 18 years, SPENCER, age about 15 years.

Dated 20 Feb. 1827. Wit: Daniel VINYARD. State of Illinois, Gallatin County. A statement of action before Thos. F. VAUGHT, JP dated Feb. 7, 1827. Recorded May 25, 1827 by Thos. L. POSEY, Clerk by D.H. CAMPBELL, D. Clerk.

p.76-80) Joseph STREET of Gallatin County, IL , makes statement re: Grace CLARK, a Negro woman, light complection, 4' 6" height, age about 44 years, scar on arm and temple. Samuel CLARK came to clerk' s office to make a statement re: Negroes under the age of 15 years as per law and indicated that GRACE was to be free. This was later agreed to as his intention by wife and neighbor. GRACE has remained at Wabash-Saline in Gallatin County, IL before and since Mr . CLARK's death. She has good reputation and is now living at residence of Timothy GUARD. Dated 3 Sept. 1825. Jos. M. STKEET. Grace CLARK has two children born since her title to freedom (Constitution 1818): (1) MILETHNA, born Aug. 1821, and (2) MAY, born in May, 1824. Children now living with mother and entered as per law. Signed: J.M. STREET. (Fall of 1825) The undersigned know GRACE CLARK residing at T. GUARD's Salt Works. Signed: Henry BELT, Michael JONES, Robert R. FUNKHOUSER and Reuben YOUNG. The foregoing was recorded 11/17/1825 by Joseph M. STREET. Note: Leo WHITE recorded the same on 11/1/1827 as he was unable to find the record of Joseph M. STREET of Gallatin County, Illinois.

p.80-2) William MCCOY of Gallatin County, Illinois , does manumit and free a mulatto girl ESTER, age about 23 years. Dated 11/21/1826. Sworn before Thos. F. VAUGHT, JP.

p.82-92) Martin BARKER, a man of color produced the following papers to be admitted to the record of 11 Nov. 1827, Randolph County, state of Illinois. (summary) Martin BARKER, a man of color was brought in by Wm. C. GREENUP, Esq. as a runaway slave, as he had no papers proving he was a free man, although he claimed to be free. He said his freedom papers had been forcibly taken from him at Rocking Cave on the Ohio River. Since he had no papers, he was committed to the sheriff' s custody as per state law of 3/20/1819. Dated 12/11/1826. M. HOTCHKISS, JP.

Affidavits made in Dearborn Co., Indiana by the following were submitted: Jacob BLASDELL, Sr, and Jacob BLASDELL, Jr.; also James DILL, stating that the courthouse records had burned in Dearborn County, Indiana and no copies of the papers of Martin BARKER could be submitted showing that he was a free man.

Martin BARKER was supposed to be about age 40, 5' 6'' tall, middle-sized, scars on face, and was hired by the BLASDELLS who were manufacturers of salt at the U.S. Saline below the Wabash River. He worked there in 1808 and 1809 with the consent of his master, Lewis BARKER, who lived at Rocking Cave and received the money earned by Martin BARKER. James ESTILL swore in Dearborn Co., Indiana that John ROBINSON of Missouri sold said Martin BARKER to Isaac VANBIBER as a slave. Later the two BLASDELLS were in Missouri working the lead mines, and again Lewis BARKER hired out Martin BARKER to work for the BLASDELLS. This was in 1810. Lewis BARKER asked the BLASDELLS to give security amounting to about $400 for Martin BARKER. This was the amount agreed upon at one time between the slave and his master for his freedom. BLASDELL refused and Lewis BARKER took Martin BARKER away in chains forcibly. Some time in 1813 the BLASDELLS were called upon to give details of the foregoing facts. James DILL states he as recorder of Dearborn Co., Indiana, gave the said Martin BARKER a copy of his freedom papers as required by law, and that due to the fire he is unable to give a transcript of papers at this time.

p.93) 2/17/1817. Jonathan RAMSEY sets free from this date a Negro woman named JUDE. The deed of emancipation acknowledged in Court at February term, 1817 in Livingston County, KY; recorded in Book "C", p. 249. Test.: Enoch PRINCE, Clerk; received 12/3/1827 in Gallatin Co., IL and certified that the copy was a true copy.

p.94-5) State of Illinois, Gallatin County. "The bearer Henry BROADY, a dark mulatto about age 26 years is to work on a flat boat descending the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to Natchez or New Orleans. He has lived here 10 years and I have no doubt he is a free man. Respected as such and seems honest and industrious." Signed Jno. MARSHALL, Alex. KIRKPATRICK and Samuel MARSHALL. Dated Shawneetown, IL 2/19/1824. Henry BROADY was brought to the Saline by Jonathan BROADY (said to be an uncle), a free colored man in 1811 to my knowledge. Dated 11/28/1827. Signed by Leo'd White.

p.95-6) Francis PORTER of Butler Co., KY, emancipates BOBB on 7/18/1816. Papers reviewed and ordered recorded by Court as certified by Robert MORRISON, Clerk of Butler Co., KY on 7/18/1816.

SOURCE: Mr. and Mrs. H. Obert Anderson, "Register of Slaves (Indentures) and Emancipation of Slaves,"  Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring 1978).