Friday, December 1, 2017

The History of Chicago's Alleys.

Chicago is the alley capital of the country, with more than 1,900 miles of them within its borders.
Alleys have been part of Chicago's physical fabric since the beginning. Eighteen feet in width, they graced all 58 blocks of the Illinois & Michigan Canal commissioners' original town plat in 1830, providing rear service access to property facing the 80-foot-wide main streets.
Originally Chicago alleys were unpaved, most had no drainage or connection to the sewer system, leaving rainwater to simply drain through the gravel or cinder surfacing. Some heavily used alleys were paved with Belgian wood blocks. Before Belgian block became common, there were many different pavement methods with wildly varying advantages and disadvantages. Because it was so cheap wood block was one of the favored early methods. Chicago street paver bricks were also used and then alleys were paved over with concrete or asphalt paving.
But private platting soon produced a few blocks without alleys, mostly in the Near North Side's early mansion district or in the haphazardly laid-out industrial workingmen's neighborhoods on the Near South Side. Remarkably, however, alleys became the overwhelming norm in city platting, as the national land survey imposed its grid framework upon Chicago's expanding street and block pattern. Together, they enabled the city to evolve a “system” of mass-produced services and mass-produced access, one of the civic accomplishments of the century.

Alleys were used by a varitey of horse-cart peddlers selling everything from fresh fruit to knife sharpening. With so many peddlers throughtout the city, horse manure was a huge problem. My article explains how manure vaults were a part of Chicago's alleys before the turn of the 20th century and how the city dealt with all the horse manure.

By 1900, over 98 percent of the city's residential blocks had alleys, and, a century later, the proportion was still well over 90 percent.

Early suburban developments showed a rising ambivalence toward alleys (Olmsted & Vaux's 1869 Riverside plat contains 31 blocks with alleys and 50 without them). Around World War I, 'modern' planning theory declared alleys wasteful and undesirable, and the last outer fringes of the city of Chicago, along with the vast majority of suburban territory, were developed thereafter without alleys.

Alleys developed social meanings early on. In middle-class areas, the street represented the respectable front, while the alley saw the servants and suppliers do the dirty work. In working-class areas, alleys provided space for small manufacturing, repair shops, rear houses, children's play space, and, eventually, garages. Much of Chicago's elevated rapid transit system came to run along alleys.
Chicago's alley life, reflecting in many neighborhoods extreme low-rise urban congestion (in contrast to that of New York's tall tenement blocks), spurred intense social criticism by century's end for the health and behavioral 'pathologies' it supported, but improvements came slowly. In the core areas, the impact of business district expansion, expressways, public housing projects, and large-scale urban renewal after World War II obliterated thousands of alleys. In the rest of the city and in some railroad suburbs, however, alleys have survived the new millennium largely intact and contribute hugely to the pulse of Chicago's daily life.

INTERACTIVE CHICAGO ALLEY MAP 

Chicago Encyclopedia
Edited by Neil Gale, Ph.D. 

9 comments:

  1. Lived in Uptown between 1955 through 1964......our "Alley" was between 4600 block of North Malden St. and Magnolia St. We played there and it cut off a 1/2 block of walking! We ran down the alley to Wilson Ave. to the stores. Malden Drugs, Hixson's Liquors, A&P, Magnolia Grocery and all the others on Wilson. When we went to the movies at the Uptown and the Riviera we would come home through the alley, too. Our parents wouldn't allow us to use the alley after dark though. I think that was because of a girl who had disappeared in the neighborhood and then they found her body in a barrel or 55 gal drum of some sort......that changed a lot of our behavior in the neighborhood!

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  2. My alley ran in back of Sacramento Ave between Augusta and Thomas in Humboldt Park. When I was very young it was paved with bricks. Once a week we had a man selling fruit and the cart was pulled by a horse. You would scream out your back window and he would stop.

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  3. While my (north) side of Winona had an alley, the (south) side that was next to Carmen did not. This was the block in between Broadway and Glenwood in Uptown. Can anyone explain the missing alley? Yet, in between Carmen and Winnemac had an alley.

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  4. My Alley was on N. Ridgeway near Roscoe during the 50's thru 70's growing up. We played all the sports in the alley from touch football, a version of baseball, basketball and we were just a shout away from home. In the early 60's they added lights in the alleys. We had lights before the Cubs.It was a great shortcut to school and St Wenceslaus.
    Where do New Yorkers put their garbage for a whole week if they don't have a respectable alley?

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  5. My alley: 36th and Seeley! I was lucky because it wrapped around our building. There was always plenty of room to play and to pull into the garage in the winter. Also plenty to shovel, too...

    Another wonderful thing about alleys is that you can put something you don't want anymore back there and 9 times out of 10 it will disappear within the hour. I really miss that. I live in Germany now where that is not allowed. In fact, we even have to drive to the recycling center. Then there is the insult of having to pay to throw it away, knowing nobody will ever get any use out of it again.

    The ability to build alleys into our city was another of the city-planning silver linings of the fire of 1871. Otherwise, we'd have our trash piling up in the streets like NYC.

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    1. So true about NY, first thing i noticed and smelled!

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  6. If you read the first paragraph, it says: original town plat in 1830 provided rear service access to property. The Great Chicago Fire had nothing to do with the development of alleys.

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  7. IMHO, one of the worst things Chicago did was pave the alleys. When they were cinder or gravel, water from rains would just perc through. Since they did not install any drainage systems in the paved alleys, the adjoining yards flood.

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