Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Mississippi River Boundary Anomalies.

While it might seem logical for the border between Missouri and Illinois to follow the Mississippi River, this has led to some rather peculiar situations. 
Mississippi River Near Galena, Illinois.
The boundary is fixed, but the river is not. The Mississippi River is a dynamic waterway that has shifted its course over time, leaving some portions of land on the opposite side of the river from where they should be according to state boundaries.

In geomorphology, avulsion is a sudden and dramatic change in the course of a river or stream. It occurs when the river abandons its existing channel and forms a new one, typically on its floodplain. Avulsions can be caused by a variety of factors, including floods, landslides, and human activities such as dam construction. Avulsions can have a significant impact on the landscape, creating new landforms and destroying existing ones. They can also have a major impact on human settlements and infrastructure. For example, an avulsion can isolate a community from its water source or transportation network.

Below are the seven locations along the Mississippi River affected by an avulsion. 

Roughly 110 Miles.
  1. Ste. Genevieve-Modoc Ferry Landing, IL
  2. Kaskaskia Island, IL
  3. Crains Island, IL
  4. Wilkinson Island, IL
  5. Grand Tower Island, IL
  6. Marquette Island, Cape Girardeau Township, MO
  7. Missouri Sister Island, IL
Ste. Genevieve-Modoc Ferry Landing: The ferry crossing north of Ste. Genevieve joins Missouri and Illinois, but only barely. The land immediately north of the Ste. Genevieve-Modoc Ferry landing on the Illinois bank is actually part of Missouri.
Missouri is on the left, and Illinois is on the right.

Hop on, we're going to Ste. Genevieve,
on the Modoc Ferry from Illinois.

Kaskaskia Island: 
The most well-known avulsion was at Kaskaskia Island, where a sizable chunk of Illinois now sits on the Missouri side. Kaskaskia is one of many such oddities, though. Walking across the Missouri-Illinois state line several times without crossing a bridge, riding a boat, or getting your feet wet is possible.
Note: The green area is in Illinois, although it's now on the Missouri side of the  Mississippi and is legally Illinois.
Explore this area via Google Maps.

The town of St. Mary was originally a riverport called St. Mary's Landing. After a flood in the 1880s, the river shifted a few miles east at the opposite side of Kaskaskia Island, leaving St. Mary without any riverfront property (except in 1993). A bridge at St. Mary crosses the old channel, providing the main entrance to this isolated portion of Randolph County, Illinois.

This is the signage along US 61 at the entrance to Kaskaskia Island in St. Mary.
The island does have a second entrance along Cottonwoods Road, a gravel road connecting US 61 with the village of Kaskaskia. The road doesn't cross any bridges -- the old river channel is long gone -- so there's no indication when driving across the state line.
The foreground is Illinois, and Missouri is in the distance; the boundary is unmarked.

Crains Island: 
This sliver of land south of Chester is on the Missouri side of the river and is protected by a Missouri levee but under Illinois laws.
It's hard to tell from my maps, but this post marks the state line in the middle of a field.
The boundary at Crains Island is complicated, shown as "Indefinite" on topographic maps.

Wilkinson Island: 
If you were to launch a boat from Seventy-Six Conservation Area in Perry County, go straight across the river, and dock on the other side, you would technically still be in Missouri. The island was presumably named for John Wilkinson, the founder of the ghost town of Seventy-Six and the only person who could explain how Seventy-Six got its strange name.
The view from the boat ramp at Seventy-Six, looking from Missouri... into Missouri.

Grand Tower Island: 
This former island south of Grand Tower, Illinois, is the largest chunk of Missouri territory on the Illinois side of the river. Driving south from Grand Tower along Levee Road, you go from Illinois to Missouri and back to Illinois without passing a single sign or marker.
Looking north along Levee Road from Missouri into Illinois. The end of the pavement marks the state line.
The old river channel is now a U-shaped lake called Tower Island Chute. It still looks like a river but is cut off by a levee from the modern river channel.

Marquette Island: 
This 835-acre island (a sand bar) is part of Missouri just south of downtown Cape Girardeau, connected to the Illinois shore when the river is low. 

Missouri Sister Island: 
The name is an oxymoron: it's not an island, and it's not in Missouri. Sitting inside a sweeping 'S' bend of the river northwest of Cairo, this piece of Illinois has found itself on the Missouri side. Thanks to the crazy geography, the river flows to the northwest here -- and Missouri is east of Illinois. Yes, it's all somewhat confusing.

Compiled by Dr. Neil Gale, Ph.D. 


  1. Interesting article. I wonder if other states with water boundaries have had this same circumstance.

  2. You never fail to amaze! I knew only of Kaskaskia being "shifted."

  3. I learned something in this article.


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