But Fort Dearborn’s history was bloodied even before it became known for the battle that bears its name. Just two months earlier — on June 17 — it was the site of Chicago's first documented slaying — and some say its first murder. The suspect in the slaying was John Kinzie. In history, he is sometimes referred to as "Chicago's first citizen," but Haiti-born Jean Baptiste Point du Sable (the "du" of Point du Sable is a misnomer. It is an American corruption of "de" as pronounced in French, "Jean Baptiste Point de Sable" and first appears long after his death) is widely considered to own that title today. (Point du Sable built a cabin just north of the Chicago River near Lake Michigan — approximately where the Tribune Tower is today — in 1779, where he established a trading post. That same cabin was later purchased by Kinzie in 1804.)
|1827 Illustration of the house built at the mouth of the Chicago River. Kinzie purchased the cabin and land from his partner William Burnett who in-turn bought it from Jean Baptiste La Lime who purchased it from the original builder, Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. John Kinzie owned it from 1804 to 1828. It is claimed to be the first house build in Chicago.|
"They had some long association with each other," Russell Lewis, chief historian at the Chicago History Museum, said. "It was a very small neighborhood… and people were competitive. John Kinzie was not known as a particularly generous or affable person."
While Kinzie's name triumphed over La Lime’s in Chicago lore, historical portraits of him aren't all flattering. A Chicago Tribune article from 1966 paints Kinzie as an "aggressive" trader who clashed with some American soldiers stationed at Fort Dearborn. Ann Durkin Keating, a history professor at North Central College in Naperville, describes Kinzie as a "volatile and violent character." Tensions between Kinzie and La Lime came to a head on June 17, 1812, when the two men met outside Fort Dearborn, La Lime armed with a pistol and Kinzie with a butcher’s knife. Keating describes the murder that ensued as "premeditated" in her book "Rising Up from Indian Country: The Battle of Fort Dearborn and the Birth of Chicago."
A witness account of what followed appears in Keating's book: “We saw the men come out together; we heard the pistol go off, and saw the smoke. Then they fell down together. I don’t know as La Lime got up at all but Kinzie got home pretty quick. Blood was running from his shoulder where La Lime shot him.”
|The murder site of Jean La Lime at today's address of 444 N. Wabash Avenue, Chicago.|
"The fact that Kinzie, of course, after La Lime was killed, ran away and became a fugitive, that's open to lots of different kinds of interpretation," Lewis said. "He was innocent if it was self defense, so why did he run away?" Whether Kinzie really did murder La Lime in self defense — and it's suggested that his gunshot wound is evidence that he might have — another possible reason he fled is because of his loyalties. Chicago in 1812 was a frontier settlement with people from all over the world — France, Canada, Great Britain and possibly Spain, to name a few — as well as the Indians who already lived there. Kinzie may have stood out in this melting pot for his pro-British and anti-American stance, Lewis said. This may have made him unpopular with some of the settlement’s inhabitants, possibly leading Kinzie to believe he wouldn't get a fair trial. After recovering from the gunshot wound from La Lime, Kinzie narrowly escaped death again at the Battle of Fort Dearborn on Aug. 15 that year.
Billy Caldwell arrived on the scene just after the battle and saved the lives of the John Kinzie family. That’s the traditional account of what had happened. Historians have been unable to verify it.
Kinzie died in Chicago in 1828.
Today, Kinzie's remains are buried at the historic Graceland Cemetery in Chicago's Uptown neighborhood.
|John Kinzie grave in Graceland cemetery.|
|The alleged skeleton of Jean La Lime, at the Chicago Historical Museum.|
Compiled by Neil Gale, Ph.D.