Saturday, April 15, 2017

My Private Tour of the Lincoln Library Vault in Springfield, Illinois on the 150th Anniversary (April 15, 2015) of President Lincoln's Assassination in 1865.

In March of 2015, when I judged for the Illinois History Day state finals for junior and senior High School student history fair projects and research papersPete Harbison, the Student Historian Program Coordinator, invited me to visit the Abraham Lincoln Library and Museum for a private tour of the vault (which I found out later, just doesn't happen) on the 150th Anniversary of President Lincoln's Assassination on April 15, 2015.

When I arrived at the Lincoln Library, Pete introduced me to Dr. Samuel Wheeler, the Historian, and Director of Research, Collections, and Library Services for the Lincoln Museum & Library. (Then promoted in 2016 to the Illinois State Historian until July of 2020.
Our first stop was the Library’s research room. Here is where the public may request materials to study. There are not many books on the shelves so you need to ask the librarian for the material you wish to see.
The thousands of Lincoln artifacts that are not displayed in the Museum are stored in the lower level of the Museum/Library. I was taken to a sub-level where there are 6 miles worth of movable, electronic filing shelves. I was told that most of the items stored here were waiting for the research on the provenance of the items.

The Preservation Department is a very important function of the Library. I was introduced to the staff and allowed to take photos as they were each working on a different project.
This project was the removal of scotch tape residue from a Lincoln document from the mid-1850s.
Another person was working on the preservation of the “Members of the House of Representatives of the thirteenth General Assembly of the State of Illinois” photo-montage.

I was escorted into a small private conference room in the basement where Sam left for a few minutes then came back pushing a cart with boxes and items on it. The painting and bronze statute below were in the conference room along with some other historical artifacts that were never displayed to the public or were removed from the Museum for a change of exhibits.
I was privileged to be allowed to photograph some of the items Sam brought out to show me, but not all of them. He told me that these were some of his personal favorite Lincoln items.

The first item is Lincoln’s personal house key. The same house as the “Lincoln Home National Historic Site” at 426 South 7th Street in Springfield where the Lincoln's actually lived. I can just imagine Lincoln using this key every day!
The second item is Lincoln’s personal travel shaving kit which he took with him on his travels. Lincoln was clean-shaven when he began running for president. What you see is the kit open and the highly polished metal reflective surface (a crude mirror) Abe would look into to shave. 
Lincoln grew a beard after receiving a letter from Grace Bedell, an 11-year-old girl from New York, in October 1860, a few weeks before the election. Lincoln responded to Bedell a few days later in a letter. Read the letters.
Abraham Lincoln's first whiskers in 1860.
Little Known Fact: By growing a beard, Lincoln nearly bankrupted a young entrepreneur named Milton Bradley, who had a booming business selling daguerreotype photographs of the clean-shaven candidate. Bradley destroyed his supply of daguerreotypes and turned to designing board games to make a living.
I was shown (no photos allowed) a beautiful Tiffany (from New York) heart pendant owned by Mary Todd Lincoln. On one side were perfect diamonds (of course - it's Tiffany after all) covering the entire heart – on the reverse side was a single flawless heart cut diamond allowing you to view the spectrum of colors from the reverse side diamonds making it see-through. 

Now comes my favorite item, again no pictures allowed. I saw a handwritten letter from Mary Todd Lincoln the day after Abe died, written on mourning stationery (black-bordered paper) where Mrs. Lincoln is giving instructions (i.e. her last will and testament) about what she desired after her death. She thought her sorrow was so massive that she was going to die. 

The very first sentence stated that she should be in-state, open casket, for 48 hours. She was very afraid of waking up after being pronounced dead after being buried. 
Doctors some times didn't know if a patient was actually dead as medical technology wasn't very accurate yet. Sometimes, people were buried, by mistake, still alive (evendent by scratch marks or tattered fabric on the cover of the casket). To combat this issue with a backup system, people were buried with one end of a rope tied to their wrist. The other end of the tope was hooked to an above-ground bell. If the person awoke in the casket, they would pull on the rope, ringing the bell, summoning help to dig them up before they suffocated. Hence the term"Dead-ringer."
Last but not least, I saw 1 of the 3, Lincoln surviving stove pipe hats. Dr. Wheeler told me they were researching the hat to pin-down its provenance. He told me it might be an early hat from before Lincoln became President. It is made of beaver fur where the other two surviving hats were made from silk. There were two worn spots on the brim where the fur had worn through. It is where Lincoln's fingers would grab the hat's brim to tip it in greetings.
UPDATE ON THE STOVE PIPE HAT - July 15, 2020
After finding no evidence that a purchased stove pipe hat belonged to Abraham Lincoln, Illinois State Historian, Dr. Samuel Wheeler was out of a job, fired by Gov. JB Pritzker, on July 15, 2020, and had been escorted out of the building. 

Since questions arose about the hat’s authenticity a few years ago, it has been removed from the display list. Trustee Kathryn Harris said that the subcommittee on July 7 authorized Wheeler to consult with textile experts to determine whether the hat’s material is from Lincoln’s era and whether labeling inside can connect the Great Emancipator with the hatmaker.
The hat was once appraised at $6.5 million.In the report, Wheeler focused on a history of double-dealing, conflicts of interest and a neglect of basic due-diligence in studying the hat’s provenance before its purchase. He also slammed a “weaponization” of the hat during years of friction between the museum and the not-for-profit that acquired it on behalf of the museum, the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library Foundation. The hat was the cornerstone of a $25 million haul of Lincoln artifacts in 2007 by the foundation — just as the newly-opened, state-run museum was looking to establish itself as a can’t-miss Illinois tourism destination and a nationally respected institution. Wheeler’s report also found the hat isn’t in Lincoln’s size.

Harris said she sits on a committee of the ALPLM’s board, complimented Wheeler’s work, saying she’d heard of no complaints of his performance. She said she couldn’t say whether Wheeler’s departure was related to his report. “When people say we’re going to go in a different direction, that means nothing,” she said. “It’s words strung together that don’t mean diddly squat.
All in all — a wonderful way to celebrate the 150th anniversary of President Lincoln's assassination.

Copyright © Neil Gale, Ph.D

11 comments:

  1. Outstanding! Thank you for sharing. I just finished reading the book "Twenty Days" by Kunhardt & Kunhardt. Lincoln has always been a favorite reading subject for me. John J. Kornfeind originally from Freeport, Illinois site of the 2nd Lincoln Douglas Debate of 1858 and the resultant "Freeport Doctrine"

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  2. According to https://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/dead-ringer.html there is no evidence for that origin of "dead ringer".

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  3. Scratches found on the inside of coffins suggested that the occupants had erroneously been buried alive. To overcome this, a string would be tied to a finger of the person being buried and attached to a bell on the surface. If the bell rang, the person (who was obviously not dead) could be rescued. Of course, the resurfaced person would be identical to the person buried (it was the same person) and would be known as a dead ringer for the deceased.

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  4. What an amazing opportunity you had to participate!
    Not only my favorite President but such interesting social tidbits about him and those time.
    Milton Bradley, the term “dead ringer”, how Mrs. Lincoln felt so devastated. Even to see the key!
    I LOVED going to see President Lincoln’s house every year with school and with my parents on our way to visit Belleville. I purposely would look for the loaf of bread in the kitchen and study the details of articles al dot to see if anyone moved them around. Thank you Neil! This was outstanding.

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  5. Always an interesting read when Neal Gale posts the link. I find the key very cool and the story of the beard, I never heard that before. I remember making a Stove top hat in art class in grammar school.
    I’ll be using the Dead ringer info at work tomorrow.

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  6. Very wise snd observant little 11 yr old girl. I got a chuckle out of that lol!! The description of the Tiffany jewel sounded absolutely beautiful!! I sure being an historian yourself, you were like a kid in a candy shop. Another great article. Thank Neil!

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  7. Thoroughly enjoyed this piece. What a thrill it must have been to see the items and documents “from the vault.” Thank you, as always, for sharing.

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